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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Wyandotte hens and duration and quantity of drug residues in their eggs following PO administration of a single dose (1 mg of meloxicam/kg [0.45 mg of meloxicam/lb]) and compare results with those previously published for White Leghorn hens.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult Wyandotte hens.

PROCEDURES

Hens were administered 1 mg of meloxicam/kg, PO, once. A blood sample was collected immediately before and at intervals up to 48 hours after drug administration. The hens’ eggs were collected for 3 weeks after drug administration. Samples of the hens’ plasma and egg whites (albumen) and yolks were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD terminal half-life, maximum concentration, and time to maximum concentration were 5.53 ± 1.37 hours, 6.25 ± 1.53 µg/mL, and 3.25 ± 2.12 hours, respectively. Mean ± SD number of days meloxicam was detected in egg whites and yolks after drug administration was 4.25 ± 2 days and 9.0 ± 1.5 days, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Compared with White Leghorn hens, meloxicam in Wyandotte hens had a longer terminal half-life, greater area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from time 0 to infinity, a smaller elimination rate constant, and a longer mean residence time-versus-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and drug persisted longer in their egg yolks. Therefore, the oral dosing interval of meloxicam may be greater for Wyandotte hens. Results may aid veterinarians on appropriate dosing of meloxicam to Wyandotte hens and inform regulatory agencies on appropriate withdrawal times. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:84–87)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—71 veterinarians.

Procedures—An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance.

Results—Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Plasma cytokine adsorption has shown benefit as an adjunctive therapy in human sepsis but has yet to be investigated in horses. We hypothesized that ex vivo filtration of equine plasma with a novel cytokine adsorption device would significantly reduce concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokines. We also hypothesized that the device would adsorb medications commonly used to treat sepsis.

ANIMALS

8 horses owned by North Carolina State University.

METHODS

Four liters of heparinized whole blood was collected from healthy adult horses (n = 8) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/mL) for 6 hours (37 °C.) from June 4, 2023, to December 15, 2023. Plasma was filtered through a cytokine adsorption device or sham circuit. Samples were collected at 11 time points for multiplex cytokine analysis. Chemistry analysis was performed before and after filtration. To investigate the impact of the device on medication concentrations, equine plasma containing potassium penicillin, gentamicin, and flunixin meglumine was filtered through the cytokine adsorption device or sham for 6 hours. Drug concentrations before and after filtration were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefiltration versus postfiltration sample concentrations were analyzed by Student paired t test using GraphPad Prism 9.0 (P < .05).

RESULTS

Filtration of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated equine plasma (n = 8) for 6 hours resulted in significant mean reductions in the cytokines IL-10, IL-5, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β, as well as albumin. Drug concentrations of potassium penicillin, gentamicin, and flunixin meglumine were also significantly reduced by filtration.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This work provides proof of concept for further investigation of extracorporeal cytokine adsorption as a potential adjunct treatment for equine sepsis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe short-term outcomes of dogs and cats undergoing surgery for traumatic bile peritonitis.

ANIMALS

13 dogs and 4 cats.

METHODS

Multi-institutional, retrospective study. Medical records from 6 institutions were reviewed for cases of traumatic bile peritonitis between 2006 and 2022. Clinical presentation, additional injuries, surgical treatment, and outcome were recorded.

RESULTS

Trauma occurred a median of 2 (range, 1 to 22) and 4 (range, 1 to 22) days prior to presentation in dogs and cats, respectively. Total bilirubin was increased in 11 of 13 dogs and 2 of 4 cats. Rupture occurred at the common bile duct (CBD) in 10 dogs and 1 cat, gallbladder in 3 dogs, cystic duct in 2 cats, and hepatic duct in 1 dog and 1 cat. The most common surgeries were cholecystoduodenostomy and CBD repair in dogs and cholecystectomy in cats. Eleven of 13 dogs and all cats survived to hospital discharge (88.2% overall survival). Median follow-up in surviving dogs and cats was 35 days (range, 14 to 401) and 30 days (range, 14 to 90), respectively. One dog that underwent cholecystectomy experienced recurrent bile peritonitis 20 days postoperatively. Short-term survival following surgical treatment of traumatic bile peritonitis was excellent and recurrence appears uncommon. The most frequent site of rupture was the CBD in dogs and the cystic duct in cats.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Measurement of peritoneal bilirubin should be considered in dogs and cats with peritoneal effusion following trauma. Surgeons should be prepared to identify and address ruptures in locations other than the gallbladder.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association