Objective—To compare present values of expected income streams for 5 distinct veterinary medical career tracks.
Design—Present value model.
Sample Population—AVMA survey data.
Procedures—Present values of expected income streams (net of debt repayment) were created and ranked. Sensitivity to each independent variable was assessed.
Results—Career present value at 34 years after graduation (CPV34) was highest for board-certified specialist (SP; $2,272,877), followed by practice owner (PO; $2,119,596), practice owner buying into practice after 10 years (PO-10; $1,736,333), SP working three-fouths time (SP3/4; $1,702,744), and general practitioner (GP; $1,221,131). Compared with CPV34 for SP, other career tracks yielded values of 93.3% (PO), 76.4% (PO-10), 74.9% (SP3/4), and 53.7% (GP). The model was robust to debt, interest rate, loan term, and discount rate but was sensitive to mean starting incomes and mean incomes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Greatest return on time and money invested by a veterinary student is through practicing full-time as an SP or through being a PO. Being an SP or SP3/4 was substantially more lucrative than being a GP and was comparable to being a PO. Practice ownership and working as an SP3/4 may be options for balancing financial gain with free time. Specialty training and practice ownership may be career tracks with the best potential repayment options for veterinarians with a large educational debt. Regardless of the amount of debt, the type of practice, mean incomes in a particular field, personal lifestyle, and professional interests are important factors when deciding among career tracks.
Objective—To identify risk factors potentially associated with the development of bacterial endocarditis in dogs and determine whether periodontal disease and surgical procedures (oral and nonoral) were associated with bacterial endocarditis.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—76 dogs with (cases) and 80 dogs without (controls) bacterial endocarditis.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, recent medical history, and results of echocardiography, clinicopatho- logic testing, and necropsy.
Results—None of the dogs with endocarditis had a history of undergoing any dental or oral procedure in the 3 months prior to the diagnosis of endocarditis, and no significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of oral infection. Dogs with endocarditis were significantly more likely to have undergone a nonoral surgical procedure that required general anesthesia in the preceding 3 months or to have developed a new heart murmur or a change in intensity of an existing heart murmur. Preexisting cardiac dis-ease (congenital or acquired) was not found to be a risk factor.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not provide any evidence of an association between bacterial endocarditis in dogs and either dental or oral surgical procedures or oral infection. Findings suggested that the routine use of prophylactic antimicrobial administration in dogs undergoing oral procedures needs to be reevaluated.