Objective—To evaluate the associations between 14 biological candidate genes and scrotal hernias in pigs.
Animals—1,534 Pietrain-based pigs, including 692 individuals from 298 pig families and 842 male pigs without family information.
Procedures—Pigs were classified as affected or unaffected for scrotal hernias. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes were analyzed via PCR assays and genotyped. Statistical analyses were performed on the family-trio and the case-control data.
Results—2 genes involved in collagen metabolism (homeobox A10 [HOXA10] and matrix metalloproteinases 2 [MMP2]) and 1 gene encoding zinc finger protein multitype 2 (ZFPM2, important in the development of diaphragmatic hernia) were significantly associated with hernias. Pigs with these genotypes had high odds of developing scrotal hernias in the case and control groups (2 ZFPM2 variants: odds ratio, 4.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.78 to 6.64] and 4.45[95%confidenceinterval,2.88to6.88]). Anothergene, collagentypeII A 1(COL2A1),was potentially involved in hernia development.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HOXA10, ZFPM2, MMP2, and COL2A1 could have important roles in pig hernia development and potentially be useful for marker-assisted selection in the pig industry.
Impact for Human Medicine—Pigs are used for the study of many human diseases because of their physiologic similarities. Genes associated with scrotal hernias in this study may be directly used in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect in humans.
Objective—To identify chromosomal regions associated with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in a population of Newfoundlands.
Animals—90 client-owned Newfoundlands.
Procedures—A pedigree was constructed for dogs that did or did not have CCLR (determined on the basis of physical examination and radiographic findings). From this pedigree, affected and unaffected dogs were selected for genotyping on the basis of their predicted statistical likelihood of being homozygous CCLR-unaffected (n = 53) or homozygous CCLR-affected (37) dogs. Genotyping was performed for 532 microsatellite markers (MSATs). Comparisons of genotypes and allele frequencies were made between CCLR-affected and CCLR-unaffected dogs.
Results—In the selected population, 495 MSATs were informative with a mean interval between markers of 5.5 centimorgans. Eighty-six MSATs were significantly associated with the CCLR trait, whereas 4 markers (located on 4 chromosomes) were significantly associated with the trait when false discovery rate (q value) was controlled at the 0.05 level. Subsequent initial validation confirmed significant trait association for 3 of the 4 MSATs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the population of Newfoundlands, 4 MSATs that were located on 4 chromosomes were significantly associated with the CCLR trait. Three of those markers were validated in part via genotyping additional closely located markers. The MSATs that were associated with the CCLR trait were identified in all regions (except for those on chromosome 24). Newfoundlands with CCLR could be used to study the disease process associated with anterior cruciate ligament injuries that occur in young female human athletes.
Objective—To determine prevalence, level of inbreeding, heritability, and mode of inheritance for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (RCCL) in Newfoundlands.
Design—Retrospective and recruitment study.
Animals—574 client-owned Newfoundlands.
Procedure—Medical records from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2002, were evaluated for prevalence of RCCL. A pedigree was constructed by use of recruited Newfoundlands with RCCL status based on results of veterinary examination; level of inbreeding, heritability, and mode of inheritance were calculated.
Results—Hospital prevalence for RCCL was 22%; dogs in the pedigree from the recruitment study had a mean level of inbreeding of 1.19 × 10−4, heritability of 0.27, and a possible recessive mode of inheritance with 51% penetrance for RCCL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Identification of a genetic basis for RCCL in Newfoundlands provided evidence that investigators can now focus on developing methods to identify carriers to reduce the prevalence of RCCL.
Objective—To estimate the economic impact to veterinary
clients for the medical and surgical treatment
of rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (RCCL) in
dogs for the year 2003.
Design—Economic impact survey.
Sample Population—501 diplomates of the
American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) indicating
that their area of surgical emphasis was small
animal orthopedic surgery or small animal general and
orthopedic surgery and 4,000 veterinarians indicating
to the AVMA that their professional area was small
animal practice exclusive or mixed animal practice (at
least 80% small animal).
Procedure—Veterinarians were surveyed concerning
the cost for medical and surgical treatment of RCCL
for 2003. The economic impact was calculated by
multiplying the number of RCCL surgeries performed
by the mean cost of surgery. This was added to the
number of RCCL cases managed medically multiplied
by the mean cost of medical management. This estimate
for survey responders was extrapolated to the
total number of veterinarians in the study population
for the ACVS or AVMA.
Results—Estimates for the total cost of surgery were
$171,730,134.72 and $1,020,167,907 for veterinarians
in the ACVS and AVMA populations, respectively. The
cost of medical management was $2,885,687.86 and
$126,558,155.16 for veterinarians in the ACVS and
AVMA populations, respectively. After combining the
ACVS and AVMA populations, we estimated that owners
spent $1.32 billion for the treatment of RCCL in the
United States in 2003.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—RCCL is a
prevalent, costly injury. Results may motivate veterinary
and consumer agencies to prioritize funding for a better
understanding of the injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;