Objective—To evaluate the use of endoscopy in conjunction with a gastropexy technique in dogs as a potential means to aid prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus.
Animals—12 healthy adult medium- and large-breed dogs.
Procedures—12 adult research dogs that had no abnormal physical examination findings each underwent an endoscopically assisted gastropexy procedure. On completion of the procedure, the dogs were euthanized and exploratory laparotomies were performed to evaluate the surgical site. Data recorded included anatomic location of the gastropexy, gastropexy length, and duration of procedure as well as any complications.
Results—Mean ± SD gastropexy length was 3.3 ± 0.25 cm, and mean duration of surgery was 18 ± 7 minutes. In each dog, the stomach was located in its normal anatomic position and all gastropexies were sutured to the abdominal wall at the level of the pyloric antrum. The only complications during the procedure were needle bending and breakage at the time of stay suture placement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these findings, it appears that endoscopically assisted gastropexy is a simple, fast, safe, and reliable method of performing a prophylactic gastropexy in dogs when undertaken by a person who is skilled in endoscopy. Such a procedure maximizes the benefits of decreased morbidity and shorter duration of anesthesia associated with minimally invasive surgery. Further clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term efficacy of this procedure in dogs at risk for development of gastric dilatation-volvulus.
Objective—To determine short- and long-term complications in clinically normal dogs after endoscopically assisted gastropexy.
Design—Prospective case series.
Procedures—Endoscopically assisted gastropexy was performed on each dog. Dogs were evaluated laparoscopically at 1 or 6 months after surgery to assess integrity of the gastropexy. Long-term outcome was determined via telephone conversations conducted with owners ≥ 1 year after surgery.
Results—Mean ± SD gastropexy length was 4.5 ± 0.9 cm, and mean duration of surgery was 22 ± 5 minutes. One dog had a partially rotated stomach at the time of insufflation, which was corrected by untwisting the stomach with Babcock forceps. Two dogs vomited within 4 weeks after surgery, but the vomiting resolved in both dogs. Four dogs had diarrhea within 4 weeks after surgery, which resolved without medical intervention. In all dogs, the gastropexy site was firmly adhered to the abdominal wall at the level of the pyloric antrum. Long-term follow-up information was available for 23 dogs, none of which had any episodes of gastric dilatation-volvulus a mean of 1.4 years after gastropexy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endoscopically assisted gastropexy can be a simple, fast, safe, and reliable method for performing prophylactic gastropexy in dogs. At 1 and 6 months after gastropexy, adequate placement and adhesion of the gastropexy site to the body wall was confirmed. Such a procedure could maximize the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, such as decreases in morbidity rate and anesthetic time. This technique appeared to be suitable as an alternative to laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy.
Objective—To determine molecular characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and toxigenicity of Clostridium difficile isolates from horses in an intensive care unit and evaluate associations among severity of clinical disease with specific strains of C difficile.
Procedures—Feces were collected from horses admitted for acute gastrointestinal tract disease with loose feces and submitted for microbial culture and immunoassay for toxin production. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on isolates for toxins A and B genes and strain identification.
Results—Isolates were grouped into 3 strains (A, B, and C) on the basis of molecular banding patterns. Toxins A and B gene sequences were detected in 93%, 95%, and 73% of isolates of strains A, B, and C, respectively. Results of fecal immunoassays for toxin A were positive in 40%, 63%, and 16% of horses with strains A, B, and C, respectively. Isolates in strain B were resistant to metronidazole. Horses infected with strain B were 10 times as likely to have been treated with metronidazole prior to the onset of diarrhea as horses infected with other strains. Duration from onset of diarrhea to discharge (among survivors) was longer, systemic inflammatory response syndromes were more pronounced, and mortality rate was higher in horses infected with strain B than those infected with strains A and C combined.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses may be infected with a number of heterogeneous isolates of C difficile. Results indicated that toxigenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates vary and that metronidazole-resistant strains may be associated with severe disease.