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  • Author or Editor: Maureen Trogdon x
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Objective—To determine whether plasma doxycycline concentrations considered effective for treatment of avian chlamydiosis could be safely established and maintained in budgerigars via administration of doxycycline in water or seed.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—68 healthy mature budgerigars.

Procedure—In 14-day trials, plasma doxycycline concentrations were measured in budgerigars provided with water containing 0, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg of doxycycline hyclate/L or a hulled seed diet containing 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg of doxycycline hyclate/kg. On the basis of these results, birds were fed seed containing 300 mg of doxycycline/kg for 42 days, and a control group received unmedicated seed. Blood samples for plasma doxycycline analysis were collected either in the morning on treatment days 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 or in the afternoon on days 12, 26, and 40. Birds were observed daily. On days 14, 28, and 42, physical and plasma biochemical variables, PCV, and total solids concentration were measured; cloacal specimens were obtained for bacteriologic and fungal culture.

Results—During a 14-day period, treatment with water containing ≤ 400 mg of doxycycline/L did not maintain plasma doxycycline concentrations of ≥ 1 μg/mL, but seed containing 300 mg of doxycycline hyclate/kg maintained mean plasma doxycycline concentrations > 0.98 μg/mL for 42 days without notable adverse effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that hulled seed containing 300 mg of doxycycline hyclate/kg can safely establish and maintain plasma doxycycline concentrations that are considered adequate for treatment of chlamydiosis in adult nonbreeding budgerigars. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223:993–998)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine usefulness of carbamylated hemoglobin (CarHb) concentration for differentiation of acute renal failure (ARF) from chronic renal failure (CRF) in dogs.

Sample Population

Samples from dogs with ARF or CRF and from nonazotemic control dogs.


CarHb concentration was determined in heparinized blood samples by measuring the micrograms of valine hydantoin (VH) per gram of hemoglobin (Hb), using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, in which carbamyl valine is converted to VH via acid hydrolysis.


CarHb concentration was significantly higher in dogs with ARF and CRF, compared with values in control dogs (ARF vs control, P < 0.05; CRF vs control, P < 0.001). Furthermore, CarHb concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in dogs with CRF, compared with that in dogs with ARF. Carbamylated hemoglobin concentration did not correlate with serum urea nitrogen or creatinine concentration. Using a cutoff value of 100 μg of VH/g of Hb, the sensitivity and specificity of CarHb concentration for differentiating ARF from CRF was 96.1 and 84.2%, respectively.


CarHb concentration was useful in the differentiation of ARF from CRF in the dogs of this study.

Clinical Relevance

CarHb concentration may be used to increase the accuracy of identifying ARF, so that early, aggressive management can be instituted, thereby increasing the chance of recovery. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1193–1196)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate intestinal permeability and gluten sensitivity in a family of Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWT) affected with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.

Animals—6 affected adult dogs.

Procedure—Intestinal biopsy specimens, urine protein- to-creatinine ratio, serum concentrations of albumin and globulin, and concentration of α1-protease inhibitor in feces were evaluated before, during, and 13 weeks after daily administration of 10 g of gluten for 7 weeks. Eosinophils and lymphocytes-plasmacytes were enumerated in intestinal biopsy specimens. Intestinal permeability was evaluated before and during the sixth week of gluten administration via cellobiose-mannitol and chromium-EDTA absorption tests.

Results—Serum globulin concentration decreased significantly after prolonged administration of gluten. Although not significant, there was an increase in lymphocytes- plasmacytes and a decrease in eosinophils in intestinal biopsy specimens. Furthermore, these counts were greater than those reported for clinically normal dogs. Gluten administration did not increase intestinal permeability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily administration of gluten was associated with a significant decrease in serum globulin concentration in SCWT affected with PLE or PLN, but other variables remained unchanged. Although enhanced wheatgluten sensitivity may be one factor involved in the pathogenesis of PLE or PLN in SCWT, this syndrome does not appear to be the result of a specific sensitivity to gluten. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:518–524)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research