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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate time to first recurrence (TFR) and overall survival in cats with presumed vaccine-associated sarcomas (VAS) treated with excision.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—61 cats with presumed VAS.

Procedure—Medical records of cats that received excision as the only initial treatment for presumed VAS were reviewed to evaluate prognosis. Overall survival curves and TFR were determined.

Results—Median TFR was 94 days. Median TFR for tumors treated with excision performed at a referral institution (274 days) was significantly longer than that for tumors excised by a referring veterinarian (66 days). Radical first excision yielded significantly longer median TFR (325 days) than did marginal first excision (79 days). Cats with tumors located on the limbs had longer median TFR (325 days) than cats with tumors located in other sites (66 days). Median overall survival time was 576 days. Significant differences in survival times between groups were not detected. Few cats (13.8%) receiving only surgical treatment had longterm (> 2 years) survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radical first excision of presumed VAS is essential for extended TFR. Current recommendations for vaccination of the distal portions of the extremities are appropriate, because this practice permits radical excision of tumors (amputation) that develop at vaccination sites; however, surgery alone is seldom curative. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:58–61)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of physical examination, fine-needle aspiration, and needle core biopsy of the regional lymph nodes for evidence of metastasis in dogs and cats with solid tumors.

Design—Case series.

Animals—37 dogs and 7 cats.

Procedure—Regional lymph nodes were evaluated by means of physical examination (palpation), fineneedle aspiration, and needle core biopsy. Results were compared with results of histologic examination of the entire lymph node, the current standard.

Results—Tumors included 18 sarcomas, 16 carcinomas, 7 mast cell tumors, and 3 other tumors. Carcinomas were more likely to have metastasized to the regional lymph node (7/16 animals) than were sarcomas (2/18). Sensitivity and specificity of physical examination were 60 and 72%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates were 100 and 96%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of histologic examination of needle core biopsy specimens were 64 and 96%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that fine-needle aspiration may be a sensitive and specific method of evaluating the regional lymph nodes in dogs and cats with solid tumors, because results correlated well with results of histologic examination of the entire lymph node. Physical examination alone was not a reliable method and should not be used to decide whether to aspirate or biopsy the regional lymph nodes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1424—1428)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the biological behavior of liposarcomas in dogs and identify clinical signs, the effect of treatment on survival time, and potential prognostic factors.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—56 dogs with histologically confirmed liposarcoma.

Procedure—Information was obtained on signalment, tumor size, location of the tumor, stage of disease, remission duration, overall survival time, cause of death, type of surgery (incisional biopsy, marginal excision, or wide excision), and any additional treatments given.

Results—Surgery consisted of incisional biopsy in 6 dogs, marginal excision in 34, and wide excision in 16. Twenty-five dogs had histologic evidence of tumor cells at the surgical margins and 28 did not (status of the margins was unknown in 3 dogs). Twelve of 43 dogs had local recurrence. Median survival time was 694 days, and the only factor significantly associated with survival time was type of surgery performed. Median survival times were 1,188, 649, and 183 days, respectively, for dogs that underwent wide excision, marginal excision, and incisional biopsy. Factors that were not found to be significantly associated with survival time included tumor size, status of the margins, tumor location, and histologic subtype.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in dogs, liposarcomas are locally invasive neoplasms that rarely metastasize and occur primarily in appendicular or axial locations and that wide excision is preferred to marginal excision when feasible. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:887–891)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the ability of a single injection of a sustained-release formulation of moxidectin (moxidectin SR) to protect dogs against heartworm infection for 180 days after inoculation with infective thirdstage larvae (L3) of Dirofilaria immitis.

Animals—32 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of weight and sex. Dogs were injected SC with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or moxidectin SR at the rate of 0.06, 0.17, or 0.5 mg/kg of body weight (day 0). Each dog was inoculated SC with 50 D immitis L3 180 days later. On days 330 and 331, dogs were euthanatized. The heart, lungs, and thoracic cavity were examined, and number and sex of heartworms were determined.

Results—A mean of 35.9 heartworms was recovered from untreated control dogs. Fourteen worms were recovered from 1 of 8 dogs given moxidectin SR at the lowest dosage, and none of the dogs in the 2 highest moxidectin treatment groups were infected. Small barely palpable granulomas were detected at injection sites of moxidectin-treated dogs. Frequency and size of granulomas were positively correlated with dose of moxidectin administered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of moxidectin SR at a dosage as low as 0.17 mg/kg can safely and reliably confer complete protection against infection after challenge-exposure with D immitis L3, and protection lasts for at least 180 days. This mode of prophylactic treatment against infection with heartworms effectively eliminates failure of prophylaxis that results from erratic administration of medications designed for monthly administration. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1721–1726)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether particular vaccine brands, other injectable medications, customary vaccination practices, or various host factors were associated with the formation of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats.

Design—Prospective multicenter case-control study.

Animals—Cats in the United States and Canada with soft tissue sarcomas or basal cell tumors.

Procedure—Veterinarians submitting biopsy specimens from cats with a confirmed diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma or basal cell tumor were contacted for patient medical history. Time window statistical analyses were used in conjunction with various assumptions about case definitions.

Results—No single vaccine brand or manufacturer within antigen class was found to be associated with sarcoma formation. Factors related to vaccine administration were also not associated with sarcoma development, with the possible exception of vaccine temperature prior to injection. Two injectable medications (long-acting penicillin and methyl prednisolone acetate) were administered to case cats more frequently than to control cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings do not support the hypotheses that specific brands or types of vaccine within antigen class, vaccine practices such as reuse of syringes, concomitant viral infection, history of trauma, or residence either increase or decrease the risk of vaccineassociated sarcoma formation in cats. There was evidence to suggest that certain long-acting injectable medications may also be associated with sarcoma formation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1283–1292)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association