A 10-week-old 11.9-kg (26.2-lb) sexually intact female English Labrador Retriever was referred for neurologic evaluation because of episodic ataxia of 1 month's duration. During these episodes, which typically lasted several minutes, the dog would stumble through the house, listing from side to side with a kyphotic posture; its mentation appeared slightly altered, but the dog did not urinate or defecate during these episodes. The owners perceived that the episodes occurred more often when the dog was apparently nervous. The owners also reported that the dog was overall more lethargic. The referring veterinarian performed serologic testing for antibodies against Neospora
Objective—To describe clinical and diagnostic imaging features of zygomatic sialadenitis in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—11 dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis and 20 control dogs without evidence of retrobulbar disease.
Procedures—Medical records were searched for dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis that underwent some combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography. Signalment, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic tests, cytologic and histologic diagnosis, treatment, qualitative disease features, and disease course were recorded. Images obtained via MRI or CT were analyzed for pre- and postcontrast signal intensity or density, respectively; zygomatic salivary gland area was determined. Results were compared with those of control dogs that underwent the same imaging procedures (n = 10/method). Ultrasonographic images of affected dogs were assessed qualitatively.
Results—Most (9/11) affected dogs were medium- or large-breed males (mean age, 8 years) with unilateral disease. Affected dogs had clinical signs of retrobulbar disease and cytologic or histologic evidence of zygomatic sialadenitis. Sialoceles were detected in 7 affected glands. Compared with values for control dogs, MRI findings in affected dogs (n = 7) included gland enlargement, T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and increased contrast enhancement; CT features in affected dogs (2) included gland enlargement and hypodensity on unenhanced images. Retrobulbar masses were identified via ultrasonography in 9 of 10 orbits examined, and zygomatic salivary gland origin was detected in 4.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visualization of anatomic structures for diagnosis of zygomatic sialadenitis and evaluation of adjacent structures was excellent via MRI and CT Ultrasonography was less definitive but useful for sample collection.
Objective—To compare clinical features of cryptococcosis among cats and dogs in California, determine whether the distribution of involved tissues differs from distribution reported previously in a study in southeastern Australia, and identify Cryptococcus spp isolated from the study population.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—62 cats and 31 dogs with cryptococcosis.
Procedures—Medical records of cats and dogs with cryptococcosis were reviewed. Information collected included geographic location, species, signalment, and tissues or organs involved. Cryptococcosis was confirmed via serology, cytology, histology, or microbial culture, and molecular typing was performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine significant associations among variables. Other comparisons were evaluated via χ2 or unpaired t tests.
Results—American Cocker Spaniels were overrepresented, compared with other dog breeds. Serum cryptococcal antigen test results were positive in 51 of 53 cats and 15 of 18 dogs tested. Cryptococcus gattii was more commonly detected in cats (7/9 for which species identification was performed), and Cryptococcus neoformans was more commonly detected in dogs (6/8). Six of 7 C gattii isolates from cats were molecular type VGIII. Distribution of involved tissues was different between cats and dogs in California and between populations of the present study and those of the previously reported Australian study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Strains of Cryptococcus spp appeared to have host specificity in dogs and cats. Differences in lesion distribution between geographic locations may reflect strain differences or referral bias. Antigen assays alone may not be sufficient for diagnosis of cryptococcosis in cats and dogs.