OBJECTIVE To determine the in vitro half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of ganciclovir for canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) and to evaluate the efficacy of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection.
ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen–free adult Beagles.
PROCEDURES Cytotoxicity and EC50 of ganciclovir for CHV-1 were determined during in vitro experiments. During an in vivo experiment, dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infections received 1 drop of 0.15% ganciclovir (ganciclovir group; n = 5) or artificial tear (control group; 5) ophthalmic gel in both eyes 5 times daily for 7 days, then 3 times daily for 7 days. For each dog, ophthalmic and confocal microscopic examinations were performed at predetermined times to determine severity of ocular disease and inflammation. Conjunctival swab specimens were collected at predetermined times for PCR assay analysis to determine CHV-1 shedding.
RESULTS No in vitro cytotoxic effects were observed for ganciclovir concentrations ≤ 500μM. The EC50 of ganciclovir for CHV-1 was 37.7μM. No adverse effects associated with ganciclovir were observed during the in vivo experiment. Mean ocular disease and inflammation scores for the ganciclovir group were significantly lower than those for the control group. Mean duration of CHV-1 shedding for the ganciclovir group (0.4 days) was significantly shorter than that for the control group (6.2 days).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical administration of 0.15% ganciclovir ophthalmic gel was well tolerated and effective in decreasing clinical disease scores, ocular tissue inflammation, and duration of viral shedding in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection.
To determine the effects of orally administered raltegravir in cats with experimentally induced ocular and respiratory feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infection.
14 healthy 6-month-old unvaccinated specific pathogen–free cats.
On day 0, all cats were experimentally inoculated by topical application of 0.1 mL of a solution containing 106 plaque-forming units of FHV-1 strain FH2CS to the inferior conjunctival fornix of each eye. Cats were randomly assigned to receive either raltegravir (80 mg; n = 7) or lactose (250 mg; vehicle; 7), PO, every 12 hours for 14 days beginning on day 1. Cats were assigned clinical ocular and respiratory disease scores every other day from days 0 to 30. Conjunctival swab specimens were collected for detection of FHV-1 by virus isolation and real-time PCR assay at 3-day intervals from days 0 to 30. Confocal microscopy was performed on days 0 and 10 to assess corneal epithelial leukocyte infiltration. The assessed variables and duration of FHV-1 shedding were compared between the 2 treatment groups.
Cats in both groups developed moderate to severe conjunctivitis and ulcerative keratitis characteristic of FHV-1 infection. Median duration of FHV-1 shedding was shorter and signs of ocular and respiratory disease were less severe for raltegravir-treated cats than for vehicle-treated cats. However, the mean conjunctival FHV-1 titer and corneal epithelial leukocyte count did not differ between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested orally administered raltegravir might be effective for alleviation of ocular and respiratory signs of FHV-1 infection in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:490–497)