Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Matthew J. Chavkin x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate, for clinically normal dogs, results of Schirmer tear tests in eyes without topical anesthetic (STT) and to detect differences associated with breed, sex, age, day, and time of day in eyes in which STT was performed after use of topical anesthetic (STTa).

Animals—41 Beagles, 43 Labrador Retrievers, 25 Golden Retrievers, 26 English Springer Spaniels, and 22 Shetland Sheepdogs.

Procedure—Beagles had STT and STTa values measured twice daily for 5 days. Client-owned dogs of 4 other breeds had STT and STTa values measured once.

Results—Mean ± SD values of Beagles for STT and STTa were 20.2 ± 2.5 and 3.8 ± 2.7 mm/min. Mean values for STT and STTa were as follows: Labrador Retriever, 22.9 ± 4.1 and 9.6 ± 3.8 mm/min; English Springer Spaniel; 20.7 ± 3.2 and 5.4 ± 3.4 mm/min; Golden Retriever, 21.8 ± 3.7 and 8.8 ± 3.1 mm/min; and Shetland Sheepdog, 15.8 ± 1.8 and 3.6 ± 2.8 mm/min. Overall mean values for STT and STTa were 20.2 ± 3.0 and 6.2 ± 3.1 mm/min. Differences for STT and STTa were detected among breeds, but significant differences were not associated with sex or age within each breed or in overall values for all dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results for the STT reported here compare favorably with reported values, except for results of Shetland Sheepdogs; however, results for the STTa differ dramatically from reported values. Clinicians should consider effects attributable to breed when evaluating results of STT and STTa in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:1422–1425)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgA, IgM, and IgG were measured by ELISA in the serum and aqueous humor of 29 client-owned cats with endogenous uveitis and 7 specific-pathogen-free cats tested sequentially for 20 weeks after inoculation with T gondii. Local antibody production in aqueous humor was estimated by multiplying the aqueous humor-to-serum T gondii-specific antibody ratio by the serum-to- aqueous humor total IgG (C value) or calicivirus-spe- cific IgG (CTC value) ratio. Evidence for local production of antibody in aqueous humor was defined as C value greater than 8 or CTC value greater than 1. Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM CTC values, IgG CTC values, or IgA CTC values greater than 1 were detected in the aqueous humor of 18 of 29 (62.1%) client- owned cats with endogenous uveitis; 2 cats had IgA CTC values greater than 1 without detectable IgM or IgG in aqueous humor. Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM was not detected in the aqueous humor of experimentally inoculated cats before or after inoculation. Immunoglobulin G C values greater than 8 were detected in all 7 experimentally inoculated cats and ranged from 10.4 to 145.5.

Immunoglobulin G C values greater than 8 were first detected 4 to 8 weeks after T gondii inoculation and were undetectable by week 16 after inoculation. Immunoglobulin A C values greater than 8 were detected in 4 of 7 cats and ranged from 12.7 to 264.3. Immunoglobulin A C values greater than 8 were first detected 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation, and were detected in 2 cats during week 20 after inoculation. It was concluded that some cats infected with T gondii develop detectable concentrations of T gondii-specific IgA in aqueous humor.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Proportional hospital accession ratios for chronic superficial keratitis (csk) of dogs were determined for 16 US veterinary teaching hospitals participating in the Veterinary Medical Data Base between Jan 1, 1976 and Dec 31, 1991. The prevalence of csk was significantly correlated (r = 0.90) with altitude of residence, but not with latitude, longitude, mean annual solar radiation, or mean annual relative humidity.

Medical records of dogs with (n = 595) and without (n = 72,877) csk examined at the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between Jan 1, 1976 and Oct 28, 1991 were also reviewed. Belgian Tervuren, German Shepherd Dogs, Border Collies, Greyhounds, Siberian Huskies, and Australian Shepherds were disproportionately affected. Dogs between 4 and 7 years old were 2.36 times more likely to develop lesions than were dogs < 4 years old (P < 0.05). Among dogs < 4 years old, spayed females, sexually intact males, and castrated males were more likely to develop the condition (P < 0.05) than were sexually intact females. Altitude of residence was a significant risk factor in the development of csk among dogs in Colorado. Dogs living at altitudes > 7,000 ft above sea level were 7.75 times more likely to develop lesions than were dogs living at elevations between 3,000 and 5,000 ft.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association