Objective—To determine the effects of IM administration of acepromazine, hydromorphone, or the acepromazine-hydromorphone combination on degree of sedation in clinically normal dogs and to compare 2 sedation scoring techniques.
Procedures—Dogs were assigned to receive IM administrations of acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb]; n = 12), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]; 11), acepromazine-hydromorphone (0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively; 12), or saline (0.9% NaCI) solution (0.05 mL/kg [0.023 mL/lb]; 11). Sedation scores were determined at 0 (time of administration), 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes by use of a subjective scoring system (SSS) and a simple numeric rating scale (NRS).
Results—Acepromazine caused significantly greater sedation than did saline solution at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Acepromazine-hydromorphone caused significantly greater sedation than did saline solution at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes and than did hydromorphone alone at 30 minutes. Hydromorphone alone did not cause significantly greater sedation than did saline solution. All treatments, including saline solution, caused significantly greater sedation at 45 and 60 minutes, compared with sedation at time 0. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.72) between scores obtained with the SSS and NRS, but the NRS was less sensitive for detecting clinically important sedation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of acepromazine or acepromazine-hydromorphone caused sedation in clinically normal dogs, whereas administration of hydromorphone alone did not. The NRS was a less-reliable measure of sedation.
Objective—To determine the effects of treatment
with and without adjuvant radiation therapy on recurrence
of ocular and adnexal squamous cell carcinoma
(SCC) at specific anatomic locations in horses.
Procedures—Medical records of horses with histologically
confirmed ocular and adnexal SCC evaluated
from 1985 to 2002 were reviewed. Sex, breed, age,
type of treatment, location, and recurrence of SCC
were recorded. Two treatment groups determined by
recurrence of SCCs treated with and without adjuvant
radiation therapy were established.
Results—The anatomic site with the highest recurrence
rate was the limbus (junction of the cornea and
sclera) or bulbar conjunctiva (47.7%), independent of
treatment group. There was a significant difference in
recurrence rates of ocular and adnexal SCCs between
the 2 treatment groups, independent of anatomic location.
Recurrence rates of SCCs treated with and without
adjuvant radiation therapy were 11.9% and 44.1%,
respectively. Recurrence rates for SCCs of the eyelid,
limbus or bulbar conjunctiva, and cornea treated with
adjuvant radiation therapy were significantly different
from those for SCCs treated without adjuvant radiation
therapy. The most frequently represented anatomic
site for ocular and adnexal SCCs was the eyelid
(28.7%). Coat color, breed, and the interaction of age
and breed had a significant effect on tumor recurrence
regardless of treatment type and anatomic location.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that ocular and adnexal SCCs treated with adjuvant
radiation therapy had a significantly lower recurrence
rate, compared with SCCs treated without adjuvant
radiation therapy, independent of anatomic location.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1733–1738)