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To establish reference values for a panel of serum markers of bone turnover in dogs of various ages.


Dogs in 4 age groups (0 to 1 year; 1 to 2 years; 3 to 7 years; > 8 years).


Serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type-I procollagen (PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type-I procollagen (PINP), both markers of type-I collagen synthesis (hence, bone formation), were measured by use of commercial human radioimmunoassay kits. Serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen (ICTP), a marker for type-I collagen breakdown (hence, bone resorption), also were measured by use of a commercial human radioimmunoassay kit. Serum osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme activities were measured by use of techniques developed specifically for dogs.


As expected, the highest values for all of the markers were found in young dogs (< 12 months old). Concentrations of OC and ICTP decreased with age, and were lowest in dogs > 8 years old. Total ALP and bone-specific ALP activities initially decreased with age, then increased in dogs > 8 years old.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Serum markers of bone turnover may be useful diagnostic and prognostic tools for management of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:250–254)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate intrasession and intersession repeatability of measurements for temporospatial and kinetic variables obtained with a pressure-sensitive treadmill designed for gait analysis of dogs.


16 client-owned dogs.


The influence of treadmill speed on accuracy of ground reaction force (GRF) measurements was assessed by simulated gait analysis at 0 to 7.5 km/h with a custom test device. A similar test was performed with 1 client-owned dog ambulating on the treadmill at 5 speeds (3 to 7 km/h) for GRF calculations. Fifteen client-owned dogs were then walked on the treadmill at 3 km/h for collection of temporospatial and kinetic data. Intrasession repeatability was determined by comparing 2 sets of measurements obtained ≤ 2 hours apart. Intersession repeatability was determined by comparing the first set of these measurements with those for a second session ≥ 4 days later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs; consistency test) and difference ratios were calculated to assess repeatability.


Increases in treadmill speed yielded a mean 9.1% decrease in weight-normalized force data at belt speeds of up to 7.5 km/h for the test device, compared with the value when the treadmill belt was stationary. Results were similar for the dog at increasing treadmill speeds (mean decrease, 12.4%). For temporospatial data, intrasession ICCs were > 0.9 and intersession ICCs ranged from 0.75 to 0.9; for GRFs, intrasession and intersession ICCs ranged from 0.68 to 0.97 and from 0.35 to 0.78, respectively.


Repeatability of temporospatial data for healthy dogs was good to excellent; results for kinetic data varied. Further research is needed to investigate use of this system for gait analysis with larger samples of dogs and dogs with lameness.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare gait variables in Doberman Pinschers with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM).

ANIMALS 18 Doberman Pinschers (9 clinically normal dogs and 9 CSM-affected dogs).

PROCEDURES A neurologic examination was performed on all dogs. The diagnosis of CSM was confirmed with MRI. Temporospatial and kinetic gait variables were measured by use of a pressure-sensitive walkway. Temporospatial variables evaluated included stance phase duration, swing phase duration, gait cycle duration, stride length, and gait velocity. Kinetic variables evaluated included peak vertical force and vertical impulse. Random-effects linear regression was used to determine the difference between CSM-affected and clinically normal dogs for each of the 7 variables.

RESULTS Values for temporospatial variables were significantly smaller in the thoracic limbs of CSM-affected dogs, compared with values for the thoracic limbs of clinically normal dogs. For the kinetic variables, peak vertical force was significantly higher in the thoracic limbs than the pelvic limbs for all dogs. Vertical impulse values were higher in the thoracic limbs than the pelvic limbs. There were significant differences in mean vertical impulse between the thoracic and pelvic limbs for both groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, significant differences in temporospatial variables were identified between the thoracic limbs of clinically normal and CSM-affected dogs, with the values being smaller for the CSM-affected dogs than for the clinically normal dogs. A pressure-sensitive walkway may provide a valid, practical option for rapid, objective assessment of gait and response to treatment in dogs with CSM.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine efficacy of a single intra-articular injection of an autologous platelet concentrate for treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.

Design—Randomized, controlled, 2-center clinical trial.

Animals—20 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis involving a single joint.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. In all dogs, severity of lameness and pain was scored by owners with the Hudson visual analog scale and the University of Pennsylvania Canine Brief Pain Inventory, respectively, and peak vertical force (PVF) was determined with a force platform. Dogs in the treatment group were then sedated, and a blood sample (55 mL) was obtained. Platelets were recovered by means of a point-of-use filter and injected intra-articularly within 30 minutes. Control dogs were sedated and given an intra-articular injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Assessments were repeated 12 weeks after injection of platelets or saline solution.

Results—Dogs weighed between 18.3 and 63.9 kg (40.3 and 140.6 lb) and ranged from 1.5 to 8 years old. For control dogs, lameness scores, pain scores, and PVF at week 12 were not significantly different from pretreatment values. In contrast, for dogs that received platelet injections, lameness scores (55% decrease in median score), pain scores (53% decrease in median score), and PVF (12% increase in mean PVF) were significantly improved after 12 weeks, compared with pretreatment values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a single intra-articular injection of autologous platelets resulted in significant improvements at 12 weeks in dogs with osteoarthritis involving a single joint.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association