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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol administered IV and orally and determine the dose of carvedilol required to maintain plasma concentrations associated with anticipated therapeutic efficacy when administered orally to dogs.

Animals—8 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected for 24 hours after single doses of carvedilol were administered IV (175 µg/kg) or PO (1.5 mg/kg) by use of a crossover nonrandomized design. Carvedilol concentrations were detected in plasma by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma drug concentration versus time curves were subjected to noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis.

Results—The median peak concentration (extrapolated) of carvedilol after IV administration was 476 ng/mL (range, 203 to 1,920 ng/mL), elimination half-life (t1/2) was 282 minutes (range, 19 to 1,021 minutes), and mean residence time (MRT) was 360 minutes (range, 19 to 819 minutes). Volume of distribution at steady state was 2.0 L/kg (range, 0.7 to 4.3 L/kg). After oral administration of carvedilol, the median peak concentration was 24 µg/mL (range, 9 to 173 µg/mL), time to maximum concentration was 90 minutes (range, 60 to 180 minutes), t1/2 was 82 minutes (range, 64 to 138 minutes), and MRT was 182 minutes (range, 112 to 254 minutes). Median bioavailability after oral administration of carvedilol was 2.1% (range, 0.4% to 54%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although results suggested a 3-hour dosing interval on the basis of MRT, pharmacodynamic studies investigating the duration of β-adrenoreceptor blockade provide a more accurate basis for determining the dosing interval of carvedilol. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2172–2176)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case records of 37 cats with chylothorax examined at 2 institutions were retrospectively evaluated. Dyspnea and coughing were the most common abnormalities noticed by the owners, and most cats were dyspneic on initial examination. There was no statistically significant difference in the gender distribution of cats studied when compared with reference populations; however, purebred cats appeared to be overrepresented in the study population. Four of the cats had unilateral pleural effusion (2 left side, 2 right side) and 9 cats had effusions that were primarily, but not exclusively, on the right side. Surgery was performed on 20 cats. Fifteen cats underwent thoracic duct or cisterna chyli ligation; 20% had complete resolution of pleural fluid. There was no significant difference in the survival rate of cats that underwent thoracic duct ligation and those that were treated by other means. Six cats had mesenteric lymphangiography performed; 2 cats had normal results, and the remainder had various degrees of thoracic lymphangiectasia. Two cats in which pleuroperitoneal shunts were placed and 2 of 3 cats that underwent pleurodesis were euthanatized or died after surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association