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To examine factors that impact emergency veterinarians’ decisions in selecting a place of employment and their perceptions of factors important in fostering a work environment conducive to long-term employment.


433 Veterinary Information Network members who reported practicing emergency medicine in the US and were not diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care.


An electronic survey distributed via the Veterinary Information Network data collection portal, made available from May 25, 2022, through June 15, 2022.


Factors rated as most important in selecting a place of employment included working with a highly trained support staff and collegiality of coworkers. Factor analysis was used to extract factors that can influence emergency medicine practitioners’ views of a work environment conducive to long-term employment. The factor found to be most important was leadership. All factors, except for professional growth, were rated as more important by female practitioners when compared to male practitioners.


Aspects promoted in emergency medicine veterinarian recruitment efforts should include, in addition to the innate nature of the position, the elements identified as most attractive to current practitioners. By better understanding the impact of gender, children status, and years practicing emergency medicine on the relative importance in creating workplace environments conducive to long term employment, hospitals can be better equipped to meet the needs of both their current employees as well as potential new hires.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the virulence of a Brucella abortus mutant, BA25, lacking a major 25 kd outer membrane protein ( Omp25) in cattle.

Animals—20 mixed-breed heifers in late gestation.

Procedure—10 heifers were inoculated with 1 × 107 colony-forming units of the Omp25 mutant via the conjunctival sac, and an equal number were infected with the virulent parental strain B abortus 2308. The delivery status of the dams was recorded, and colonization was assessed following necropsy. The ability of BA25 to replicate inside bovine phagocytes and chorionic trophoblasts was also evaluated in vitro because of the propensity of virulent brucellae to replicate inside these cells in vivo.

Results—The parental strain induced abortions in 5 of 10 inoculated cattle, whereas only 1 of 10 dams exposed to BA25 aborted. Brucella abortus strain 2308 colonized all of the cow-calf pairs and induced Brucella-specific antibodies in 100% of the dams. In contrast, BA25 was isolated by bacteriologic cultural technique from 30% of the calves and 50% of the inoculated dams (n = 10). Of the 10 heifers inoculated with BA25, 4 did not develop Brucella-specific antibodies nor were they colonized by the mutant strain. In bovine macrophages and chorionic trophoblasts, BA25 replicated in significantly lower numbers than the virulent parental strain (n = 3).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 25 kd outer membrane protein may be an important virulence factor for B abortus in cattle. The attenuation of the Omp25 mutant in cattle may involve the inability of BA25 to replicate efficiently in bovine phagocytes and chorionic trophoblasts.(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1461–1466)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—2 cats were examined because of congestive heart failure secondary to heartworm infection.

Clinical Findings—One cat had severe abdominal distention and the other had dyspnea secondary to chylothorax. Both had loud right-sided heart murmurs, precordial thrills, and jugular distension. Thoracic radiography revealed cardiomegaly and enlarged caudal pulmonary arteries. Echocardiography revealed tricuspid regurgitation and multiple hyperechoic structures consistent with adult Dirofilaria immitis within the right atrium, right ventricle, and main pulmonary artery. Pulmonary hypertension was documented by means of Doppler echocardiography in 1 cat.

Treatment and Outcome—Cats were anesthetized, and a nitinol gooseneck snare catheter was introduced into the right side of the heart via a jugular venotomy. In the first cat, the snare was used to retrieve 5 female and 2 male adult D immitis. The catheter was then passed into the main pulmonary artery in an unsuccessful attempt to retrieve remaining heartworms. In the second cat, 2 adult female D immitis were removed from the right atrium with the nitinol snare. In both cats, clinical signs resolved within 4 weeks after the procedure.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that use of a nitinol gooseneck snare catheter may be a safe and effective technique for removing adult D immitis from the right atrium and ventricle in cats and that successful removal of adult heartworms in infected cats may resolve clinical signs of right-sided congestive heart failure and chylothorax. In addition, findings in 1 cat suggested that removal of all adult heartworms may not be necessary for clinical signs to resolve.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association