Objective—To compare outcomes of dogs with
pyothorax treated medically versus surgically and to
identify prognostic indicators for dogs with pyothorax.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to
obtain information regarding signalment, results of
physical and laboratory evaluations at the time of initial
examination, results of bacterial culture of pleural
fluid, radiographic abnormalities, treatment (surgical
vs medical), complications, whether the disease
recurred, disease-free interval, survival time, and
cause of death.
Results—Calculated proportions of dogs free from
disease 1 year after treatment were 25 and 78%,
respectively, for dogs treated medically and surgically.
Treatment was 5.4 times as likely to fail in dogs
treated medically as in dogs treated surgically. Two
regression models relating treatment group (medical
vs surgical) to disease-free interval were found to be
significant. The first contained terms for medical
treatment and isolation of Actinomyces spp from
pleural fluid; the second contained terms for medical
treatment and radiographic detection of mediastinal
or pulmonary lesions at the time of initial examination.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that surgical treatment is associated with a better
outcome than medical treatment in dogs with
pyothorax. In addition, surgery should be considered
if radiographic evidence of mediastinal or pulmonary
lesions is detected or if Actinomyces spp is isolated
from the pleural fluid. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;
Objective—To identify the predominant perforating
artery in the canine latissimus dorsi muscle and
demonstrate that perfusion of the predominant perforating
artery improves blood flow in segments of the
latissimus dorsi muscle that are located distally from
the thoracodorsal artery.
Sample Population—Latissimus dorsi muscles dissected
from 7 dogs.
Procedures—Colored microspheres were used to
determine the degree of perfusion of the latissimus
dorsi muscle via the thoracodorsal artery,
predominant perforating artery, or the thoracodorsal
artery and predominant perforating artery
together. The latissimus dorsi muscle was divided
into 4 proximal to distal segments relative to the
thoracodorsal artery (segments A, B, C, and D,
Results—The perforating artery, located at the level
of the fifth intercostal space, predominantly supplied
perfusion to segments B, C, and D. The number of
microspheres received by segment C was significantly
higher when the thoracodorsal artery and perforating
artery were used for muscle perfusion (181.40 ±
44.90 microspheres/300 g of tissue for every 3,000
spheres injected), compared with use of the thoracodorsal
artery alone (60.00 ± 13.70 microspheres/300 g of tissue for every 3,000 spheres
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood flow
via the predominant perforating artery improves perfusion
to the middle part of the latissimus dorsi muscle
in dogs. A bipedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap
would provide a healthier muscle for cardiac assist in
the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1255–1259)
Case Description—A 10-year-old spayed female Corgi mix was examined for a 3-week history of lethargy and weight gain.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings included muffled heart sounds and a distended abdomen with a fluid wave on ballottement. Thoracic radiography revealed a globoid cardiac silhouette, and thoracic ultrasonography indicated pericardial effusion and a pedunculated mass originating from the right auricle.
Treatment and Outcome—Initial treatment consisted of pericardiocentesis. One week later, thoracoscopic right atrial mass resection was performed. No surgical complications were noted, and the dog was discharged approximately 28 hours after surgery. Results of histologic examination of the mass indicated a grade 2 hemangiosarcoma with incomplete margins. Treatment with doxorubicin was initiated 35 days after surgery. The dog survived for 177 days after mass resection, when it was euthanized because of complications related to metastatic disease.
Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that thoracoscopic right atrial mass removal combined with adjunct doxorubicin treatment may be a viable alternative to thoracotomy in dogs with right atrial masses.
Objective–To describe the clinical features, surgical
and histologic findings, biological behavior, and outcome
of dogs with retroperitoneal sarcomas.
Procedures–Medical and pathology records from 1992
to 2002 of dogs with tumors originating in the retroperitoneal
space were reviewed. Dogs with retroperitoneal
tumors originating from the adrenal glands, kidneys, or
ureters were excluded. Inclusion criteria included observation
of a tumor arising from the retroperitoneal space
during exploratory surgery or necropsy and histologic
confirmation of tumor type. Details of clinical signs, diagnostic
findings, surgical management, and outcome
were determined from medical records and telephone
interviews with veterinarians and owners.
Results–Retroperitoneal sarcoma was diagnosed in
14 dogs, 2 at necropsy and 12 during exploratory
surgery. Hemangiosarcoma was the most common
histologic diagnosis. Seven dogs had regional extension
of the sarcoma into adjacent organs, and 4 dogs
had metastatic disease. Grossly complete resection
was possible in 6 dogs. Cytoreductive surgery or incisional
biopsy was performed in the remaining dogs.
Two dogs were treated with palliative radiation therapy
(1 intraoperatively and 1 postoperatively). Three
dogs received adjunctive chemotherapy, although
none completed the targeted course because of
development of local recurrence or metastatic disease.
Local recurrence was reported in 2 of 12 dogs
and metastasis in 10 of 14 dogs. Thirteen dogs died or
were euthanatized as a result of the retroperitoneal
sarcoma; 1 dog was alive and disease-free 410 days
after surgery. Median survival time was 37.5 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–In dogs,
retroperitoneal sarcomas are aggressive tumors with
a high rate of local recurrence and metastasis, and a
poor survival time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224: