OBJECTIVE To determine the mean diameter of the main portal vein (PV) in healthy dogs by use of CT angiography, identify any associations between PV diameter and certain dog characteristics, and validate a clinically valuable ratio for quantifying the size of the PV.
ANIMALS 100 dogs with no hepatic, cardiac, or vascular anomalies that underwent abdominal CT angiography.
PROCEDURES Diameters of the main PV, abdominal aorta (Ao), and caudal vena cava (CVC) were measured by 2 observers at a defined location on postcontrast CT angiographic images in axial, sagittal, and transverse planes. Dog characteristics were evaluated for associations with PV diameter, and a PV:Ao diameter ratio was calculated. Intraclass correlations were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement in vessel diameter measurements.
RESULTS Mean diameter values were 7.9 mm (range, 4.1 to 14.8 mm) for the PV, 8.9 mm (range, 3.7 to 13.7 mm) for the Ao, and 11.4 mm (range, 4.4 to 22.5 mm) for the CVC. The PV:Ao diameter ratio was 0.91 mm. The PV diameter was significantly associated with dog body weight but not with dog age, sex, or neuter status. Intra- and interobserver reliabilities for measurements of all 3 vessels were considered excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.85).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings indicated that the PV:Ao diameter ratio was a repeatable measurement that may be useful for evaluating the size of the portal vasculature in dogs and possibly for distinguishing healthy PVs from abnormal PVs in dogs with hepatic vascular anomalies.
To evaluate ultrasound-guided placement of an anchor wire (AW) or injection of methylene blue (MB) to aid in the intraoperative localization of peripheral lymph nodes in dogs and cats.
125 dogs and 10 cats with a total of 171 lymphadenectomies.
Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent peripheral lymphadenectomies with or without (N) the AW or MB localization technique were reviewed. Data retrieved included clinical, surgical, and histologic findings. The proportions of successful lymphadenectomies, lymph node characteristics, and complications among the 3 groups were analyzed.
143 (84%) lymph nodes were successfully excised. Lymphadenectomy success was significantly affected by the localization technique, with 94% for group AW, 87% for group MB, and 72% for group N. Lymph node size was smaller in groups AW and MB, compared with group N. Duration of lymphadenectomy was shorter in group AW, compared with groups MB and N, and in group MB, compared with group N. Intra- (7%) and postoperative (10%) complications and final diagnosis did not significantly differ among groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Both lymph node localization techniques were highly successful and reduced surgery time, compared with unassisted lymphadenectomy. Specifically, these techniques were effective for localization of normal-sized and nonpalpable lymph nodes and were efficient and practical options for peripheral lymphadenectomies, particularly for those that were small or nonpalpable.
Three dogs were presented for investigation of chronic nasal discharge and epistaxis 141, 250, and 357 days after undergoing transfrontal craniotomy to treat an intracranial meningioma (2 dogs) or a meningoencephalocele (1 dog).
CT findings were consistent with destructive rhinitis and frontal sinusitis in all 3 dogs, with results of histologic examination and fungal culture of samples obtained during frontal sinusotomy confirming mycotic infection. Frontal sinusotomy revealed fungal plaques covering a combination of bone and residual surgical tissue adhesive at the site of the previous craniotomy in all 3 dogs. Aspergillus spp were identified in all 3 dogs, and Chrysosporium sp was also identified in 1 dog.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Surgical curettage was followed by antifungal treatment (topical clotrimazole in 2 dogs and oral itraconazole for 3 months in 1 dog). Nasal discharge improved in the short-term but recurred in all dogs 99, 118, and 110 days after frontal sinusotomy. One dog received no further treatment, 1 dog received an additional 8.5 months of oral itraconazole treatment, and 1 dog underwent 2 additional surgical debridement procedures. At last follow-up, 2 dogs were alive 311 and 481 days after frontal sinusotomy; the third dog was euthanized because of status epilepticus 223 days after frontal sinusotomy.
Sinonasal mycosis should be considered as a potential complication in dogs developing persistent mucopurulent nasal discharge, intermittent epistaxis, and intermittent sneezing following transfrontal craniotomy. The pathophysiology may be multifactorial, and potential risk factors, including use of surgical tissue adhesive in the frontal sinus, require further investigation.