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  • Author or Editor: Matteo Rossanese x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the mean diameter of the main portal vein (PV) in healthy dogs by use of CT angiography, identify any associations between PV diameter and certain dog characteristics, and validate a clinically valuable ratio for quantifying the size of the PV.

ANIMALS 100 dogs with no hepatic, cardiac, or vascular anomalies that underwent abdominal CT angiography.

PROCEDURES Diameters of the main PV, abdominal aorta (Ao), and caudal vena cava (CVC) were measured by 2 observers at a defined location on postcontrast CT angiographic images in axial, sagittal, and transverse planes. Dog characteristics were evaluated for associations with PV diameter, and a PV:Ao diameter ratio was calculated. Intraclass correlations were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement in vessel diameter measurements.

RESULTS Mean diameter values were 7.9 mm (range, 4.1 to 14.8 mm) for the PV, 8.9 mm (range, 3.7 to 13.7 mm) for the Ao, and 11.4 mm (range, 4.4 to 22.5 mm) for the CVC. The PV:Ao diameter ratio was 0.91 mm. The PV diameter was significantly associated with dog body weight but not with dog age, sex, or neuter status. Intra- and interobserver reliabilities for measurements of all 3 vessels were considered excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.85).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings indicated that the PV:Ao diameter ratio was a repeatable measurement that may be useful for evaluating the size of the portal vasculature in dogs and possibly for distinguishing healthy PVs from abnormal PVs in dogs with hepatic vascular anomalies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate ultrasound-guided placement of an anchor wire (AW) or injection of methylene blue (MB) to aid in the intraoperative localization of peripheral lymph nodes in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

125 dogs and 10 cats with a total of 171 lymphadenectomies.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent peripheral lymphadenectomies with or without (N) the AW or MB localization technique were reviewed. Data retrieved included clinical, surgical, and histologic findings. The proportions of successful lymphadenectomies, lymph node characteristics, and complications among the 3 groups were analyzed.

RESULTS

143 (84%) lymph nodes were successfully excised. Lymphadenectomy success was significantly affected by the localization technique, with 94% for group AW, 87% for group MB, and 72% for group N. Lymph node size was smaller in groups AW and MB, compared with group N. Duration of lymphadenectomy was shorter in group AW, compared with groups MB and N, and in group MB, compared with group N. Intra- (7%) and postoperative (10%) complications and final diagnosis did not significantly differ among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both lymph node localization techniques were highly successful and reduced surgery time, compared with unassisted lymphadenectomy. Specifically, these techniques were effective for localization of normal-sized and nonpalpable lymph nodes and were efficient and practical options for peripheral lymphadenectomies, particularly for those that were small or nonpalpable.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the prevalence of bronchial wall thickening (BWT) and collapse in brachycephalic dogs with and without brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) and in nonbrachycephalic dogs.

ANIMALS

85 dogs with no history of lower respiratory tract disease that underwent CT of the thorax.

PROCEDURES

Electronical medical records for March 2011 through August 2019 were reviewed to identify brachycephalic dogs with BOAS (BOAS group) and brachycephalic dogs without BOAS (BDWB group) that did not have any evidence of lower respiratory tract disease and had undergone thoracic CT. A population of nonbrachycephalic dogs of similar weight (control dogs) was also retrospectively recruited.

RESULTS

BWT was identified in 28 of 30 (93.3%; 95% CI, 80.3% to 98.6%) dogs in the BOAS group, 15 of 26 (57.7%; 95% CI, 38.7% to 75.0%) dogs in the BDWB group, and 10 of 28 (35.7%; 95% CI, 20.1% to 54.2%) control dogs. On multivariable analysis, only brachycephalic conformation (P < 0.01) and body weight (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with the presence of BWT. Bronchial collapse was identified in 17 of 30 (56.7%; 95% CI, 39.0% to 73.1%) dogs in the BOAS group, 17 of 26 (65.4%; 95% CI, 46.3% to 81.3%) dogs in the BDWB group, and 3 of 28 (10.7%; 95% CI, 3.1% to 25.9%) control dogs. On multivariable analysis, only brachycephalic conformation was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with the presence of bronchial collapse.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A relationship between brachycephalic conformation and body weight with BWT was established, with heavier dogs having thicker bronchial walls. However, further studies are required to investigate the cause. Bronchial collapse was also more common in dogs with brachycephalic conformation, which is in agreement with the previously published literature.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of splenic malignancy in cats undergoing splenectomy and to investigate possible factors associated with post-operative outcome.

ANIMALS

62 client-owned cats that underwent splenectomy.

METHODS

Medical records of 4 UK-based referral hospitals were searched and data reviewed retrospectively over 17 years. Factors associated with outcomes post-splenectomy were analyzed.

RESULTS

50 out of 62 cats (81%) were diagnosed with splenic neoplasia. Mast cell tumor ([MCT], 42%), hemangiosarcoma ([HSA], 40%), lymphoma and histiocytic sarcoma (6% each) were the most common tumor types. Fifteen cats (24%) presented with spontaneous hemoabdomen and were all diagnosed with splenic neoplasia. The diagnostic accuracy of cytology to detect splenic malignant lesions was 73% (100% for MCTs and 54% for mesenchymal tumors). Median survival time for cats with nonneoplastic splenic lesions was 715 days (IQR, 18 to 1,368) and 136 days for cats with splenic neoplasia (IQR, 35 to 348); median survival time was longer for cats with splenic MCT when compared to cats with HSA (348 vs 94 days; P < .001). Presence of metastatic disease and anemia (PCV < 24%) at diagnosis were associated with a poorer survival when considering all cats. Presence of anemia, a splenic mass on imaging or spontaneous hemoabdomen were associated with a diagnosis of HSA (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Benign splenic lesions were uncommon in this cohort of cats. Spontaneous hemoabdomen should prompt the clinician to suspect neoplasia in cats with splenic disease. Anemia and evidence of metastasis at diagnosis were poor prognostic factors regardless of the final diagnosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe complications and outcomes in dogs undergoing epicardial pacemaker (EP) implantation, identify factors associated with survival, and investigate improvement in clinical signs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following surgery.

ANIMALS

52 client-owned dogs that underwent EP placement.

METHODS

Medical records of 4 UK-based referral hospitals were searched and data reviewed retrospectively between July 2010 and December 2022. Factors contributing to outcomes after EP placement were assessed.

RESULTS

The primary reasons for referral included collapsing/syncopal episodes (n = 36), exercise intolerance (15), and significant bradycardia (46). Third-degree atrioventricular block (39/52 [75%]) was the predominant indication for pacemaker placement, and common reasons for EP placement included previous transvenous pacemaker dislodgment/loss of capture (n = 12) and small body size (10). Intra- and postoperative complications were documented in 11% and 23% of dogs, respectively. Overall, 96% of dogs survived to discharge, and median follow-up time was 462 days (range, 31 to 3,139 days). Presence of coexistent myocardial or valvular disease at the time of EP implantation was associated with a reduced survival. Owners reported decreased clinical signs, increased activity levels, and improved HRQoL.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Epicardial pacemaker implantation is a valuable option for dogs requiring artificial cardiac pacing. Complications were common but did not impact the overall outcome. Dogs with a coexisting cardiac pathology had a shorter life expectancy after EP placement, but their HRQoL appeared to be good, with an improvement in clinical signs and increased activity levels.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

Three dogs were presented for investigation of chronic nasal discharge and epistaxis 141, 250, and 357 days after undergoing transfrontal craniotomy to treat an intracranial meningioma (2 dogs) or a meningoencephalocele (1 dog).

CLINICAL FINDINGS

CT findings were consistent with destructive rhinitis and frontal sinusitis in all 3 dogs, with results of histologic examination and fungal culture of samples obtained during frontal sinusotomy confirming mycotic infection. Frontal sinusotomy revealed fungal plaques covering a combination of bone and residual surgical tissue adhesive at the site of the previous craniotomy in all 3 dogs. Aspergillus spp were identified in all 3 dogs, and Chrysosporium sp was also identified in 1 dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Surgical curettage was followed by antifungal treatment (topical clotrimazole in 2 dogs and oral itraconazole for 3 months in 1 dog). Nasal discharge improved in the short-term but recurred in all dogs 99, 118, and 110 days after frontal sinusotomy. One dog received no further treatment, 1 dog received an additional 8.5 months of oral itraconazole treatment, and 1 dog underwent 2 additional surgical debridement procedures. At last follow-up, 2 dogs were alive 311 and 481 days after frontal sinusotomy; the third dog was euthanized because of status epilepticus 223 days after frontal sinusotomy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sinonasal mycosis should be considered as a potential complication in dogs developing persistent mucopurulent nasal discharge, intermittent epistaxis, and intermittent sneezing following transfrontal craniotomy. The pathophysiology may be multifactorial, and potential risk factors, including use of surgical tissue adhesive in the frontal sinus, require further investigation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association