Objective—To determine anesthetic techniques and
the drugs used to provide anesthesia and analgesia to
Sample Population—367 members of the
Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.
Procedure—1,091 members listed in the 2002 directory
of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian
Veterinarians were asked to complete a questionnaire
regarding anesthesia and analgesia.
Results—367 of 1,091 (33.6%) individuals completed
the questionnaire; 88.8% used inhalants (particularly
isoflurane) for anesthesia, and ketamine, propofol, and
butorphanol were the most commonly used injectable
agents. Intubation, fluids, and having a dedicated
anesthetist were most commonly used for patient
support, and pulse oximetry and Doppler ultrasonography
were most commonly used for monitoring.
Respiratory depression, difficulty monitoring anesthetic
depth, prolonged recovery, and hypothermia were
the most frequent complications. Nearly all respondents
believed that reptiles feel pain, but analgesics
were used infrequently for many reasons.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Providing anesthesia
in reptiles is difficult, especially regarding anesthetic
depth and vital parameters, and methods of support
are used less frequently than in domestic species.
Provision of analgesia is uncommon. Research regarding
pain and its assessment, response to analgesics,
and drug pharmacokinetics is needed. Dissemination
of this information to practitioners needs to be
improved for enhancement of the standard of care for
reptiles. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:547–552)
Objective—To compare induction and recovery characteristics
and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane
and sevoflurane in foals.
Design—Prospective crossover study.
Animals—6 healthy foals.
Procedure—Foals were anesthetized twice (once at
1 month of age and again at 3 months of age).
Anesthesia was induced by administration of the
agent in oxygen through a nasotracheal tube. During
maintenance of anesthesia, foals were positioned in
dorsal recumbency; intermittent positive-pressure
ventilation was performed. Characteristics of induction
and recovery were recorded. Cardiopulmonary
variables were recorded 10 minutes after anesthetic
induction and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes later.
Results—All 6 foals were successfully anesthetized
with isoflurane and sevoflurane. There were no significant
differences between the 2 drugs in regard to
characteristics of induction or recovery, and induction
and recovery were generally smooth and unremarkable.
There were no significant differences between
drugs in regard to measured cardiopulmonary variables;
however, both drugs caused initial hypotension
that resolved over time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that isoflurane and sevoflurane can both be used
for general anesthesia of 1- to 3-month-old foals.
Significant differences between the 2 agents were
not detected for any of the variables measured, suggesting
that quality of anesthesia with these 2 agents
was comparable. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:
Objective—To determine the effects of IM administration of acepromazine, hydromorphone, or the acepromazine-hydromorphone combination on degree of sedation in clinically normal dogs and to compare 2 sedation scoring techniques.
Procedures—Dogs were assigned to receive IM administrations of acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb]; n = 12), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]; 11), acepromazine-hydromorphone (0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively; 12), or saline (0.9% NaCI) solution (0.05 mL/kg [0.023 mL/lb]; 11). Sedation scores were determined at 0 (time of administration), 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes by use of a subjective scoring system (SSS) and a simple numeric rating scale (NRS).
Results—Acepromazine caused significantly greater sedation than did saline solution at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Acepromazine-hydromorphone caused significantly greater sedation than did saline solution at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes and than did hydromorphone alone at 30 minutes. Hydromorphone alone did not cause significantly greater sedation than did saline solution. All treatments, including saline solution, caused significantly greater sedation at 45 and 60 minutes, compared with sedation at time 0. There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.72) between scores obtained with the SSS and NRS, but the NRS was less sensitive for detecting clinically important sedation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of acepromazine or acepromazine-hydromorphone caused sedation in clinically normal dogs, whereas administration of hydromorphone alone did not. The NRS was a less-reliable measure of sedation.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of hemi-circumferential
periosteal transection and elevation (HCPTE) in
foals with experimentally induced angular limb deformities.
Animals—10 healthy foals.
Procedure—When foals were 30 days old, transphyseal
bridge implants were placed on the lateral
aspects of both distal radial physes. At 90 days of age
(or when 15 degrees of angulation had developed),
implants were removed, and HCPTE was performed
on 1 limb. Foals were confined in small pens after
surgery; the front feet of the foals were rasped weekly
to maintain medial-to-lateral hoof wall balance.
Dorsopalmar radiographic projections of the carpi
were obtained before HCPTE and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 48
Results—At the time of transphyseal bridge removal
and HCPTE, both treated and control limbs were
observed to have a significantly greater carpal valgus,
compared with the initial degree of angulation at 30
days of age. Following HCPTE or sham surgery, all
limbs straightened over the subsequent 2 months of
the study. Median angulation was not significantly different
between treated and control limbs at any time
during the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in foals with experimentally induced limb deformities,
HCPTE was no more effective than stall confinement
and hoof trimming alone for correction of the
deformity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:536–540)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, diazepam, and the combination of ketamine and diazepam on intraocular pressures (IOPs) in clinically normal dogs in which premedication was not administered.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 groups. Dogs received ketamine alone (5 mg/kg [KET5] or 10 mg/kg [KET10], IV), ketamine (10 mg/kg) with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, IV; KETVAL), diazepam alone (0.5 mg/kg, IV; VAL), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.1 mL/kg, IV; SAL). Intraocular pressures were measured immediately before and after injection and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection.
Results—IOP was increased over baseline values immediately after injection and at 5 and 10 minutes in the KET5 group and immediately after injection in the KETVAL group. Compared with the SAL group, the mean change in IOP was greater immediately after injection and at 5 and 10 minutes in the KET5 group. The mean IOP increased to 5.7, 3.2, 3.1, 0.8, and 0.8 mm Hg over mean baseline values in the KET5, KET10, KETVAL, SAL, and VAL groups, respectively. All dogs in the KET5 and most dogs in the KETVAL and KET10 groups had an overall increase in IOP over baseline values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with baseline values and values obtained from dogs in the SAL group, ketamine administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg, IV, caused a significant and clinically important increase in IOP in dogs in which premedication was not administered. Ketamine should not be used in dogs with corneal trauma or glaucoma or in those undergoing intraocular surgery.