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Author: Matt R. Read

Abstract

Objective—To determine anesthetic techniques and the drugs used to provide anesthesia and analgesia to reptiles.

Design—Mail-out questionnaire.

Sample Population—367 members of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.

Procedure—1,091 members listed in the 2002 directory of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding anesthesia and analgesia.

Results—367 of 1,091 (33.6%) individuals completed the questionnaire; 88.8% used inhalants (particularly isoflurane) for anesthesia, and ketamine, propofol, and butorphanol were the most commonly used injectable agents. Intubation, fluids, and having a dedicated anesthetist were most commonly used for patient support, and pulse oximetry and Doppler ultrasonography were most commonly used for monitoring. Respiratory depression, difficulty monitoring anesthetic depth, prolonged recovery, and hypothermia were the most frequent complications. Nearly all respondents believed that reptiles feel pain, but analgesics were used infrequently for many reasons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Providing anesthesia in reptiles is difficult, especially regarding anesthetic depth and vital parameters, and methods of support are used less frequently than in domestic species. Provision of analgesia is uncommon. Research regarding pain and its assessment, response to analgesics, and drug pharmacokinetics is needed. Dissemination of this information to practitioners needs to be improved for enhancement of the standard of care for reptiles. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:547–552)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane in foals.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy foals.

Procedure—Foals were anesthetized twice (once at 1 month of age and again at 3 months of age). Anesthesia was induced by administration of the agent in oxygen through a nasotracheal tube. During maintenance of anesthesia, foals were positioned in dorsal recumbency; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was performed. Characteristics of induction and recovery were recorded. Cardiopulmonary variables were recorded 10 minutes after anesthetic induction and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes later.

Results—All 6 foals were successfully anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane. There were no significant differences between the 2 drugs in regard to characteristics of induction or recovery, and induction and recovery were generally smooth and unremarkable. There were no significant differences between drugs in regard to measured cardiopulmonary variables; however, both drugs caused initial hypotension that resolved over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that isoflurane and sevoflurane can both be used for general anesthesia of 1- to 3-month-old foals. Significant differences between the 2 agents were not detected for any of the variables measured, suggesting that quality of anesthesia with these 2 agents was comparable. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 393–398)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of IM administration of acepromazine, hydromorphone, or the acepromazine-hydromorphone combination on degree of sedation in clinically normal dogs and to compare 2 sedation scoring techniques.

Design—Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled trial.

Animals—46 random-source dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to receive IM administrations of acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb]; n = 12), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]; 11), acepromazine-hydromorphone (0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively; 12), or saline (0.9% NaCI) solution (0.05 mL/kg [0.023 mL/lb]; 11). Sedation scores were determined at 0 (time of administration), 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes by use of a subjective scoring system (SSS) and a simple numeric rating scale (NRS).

Results—Acepromazine caused significantly greater sedation than did saline solution at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Acepromazine-hydromorphone caused significantly greater sedation than did saline solution at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes and than did hydromorphone alone at 30 minutes. Hydromorphone alone did not cause significantly greater sedation than did saline solution. All treatments, including saline solution, caused significantly greater sedation at 45 and 60 minutes, compared with sedation at time 0. There was a significant correlation (r 2 = 0.72) between scores obtained with the SSS and NRS, but the NRS was less sensitive for detecting clinically important sedation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of acepromazine or acepromazine-hydromorphone caused sedation in clinically normal dogs, whereas administration of hydromorphone alone did not. The NRS was a less-reliable measure of sedation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of hemi-circumferential periosteal transection and elevation (HCPTE) in foals with experimentally induced angular limb deformities.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy foals.

Procedure—When foals were 30 days old, transphyseal bridge implants were placed on the lateral aspects of both distal radial physes. At 90 days of age (or when 15 degrees of angulation had developed), implants were removed, and HCPTE was performed on 1 limb. Foals were confined in small pens after surgery; the front feet of the foals were rasped weekly to maintain medial-to-lateral hoof wall balance. Dorsopalmar radiographic projections of the carpi were obtained before HCPTE and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 48 weeks later.

Results—At the time of transphyseal bridge removal and HCPTE, both treated and control limbs were observed to have a significantly greater carpal valgus, compared with the initial degree of angulation at 30 days of age. Following HCPTE or sham surgery, all limbs straightened over the subsequent 2 months of the study. Median angulation was not significantly different between treated and control limbs at any time during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in foals with experimentally induced limb deformities, HCPTE was no more effective than stall confinement and hoof trimming alone for correction of the deformity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:536–540)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, diazepam, and the combination of ketamine and diazepam on intraocular pressures (IOPs) in clinically normal dogs in which premedication was not administered.

Animals—50 dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 groups. Dogs received ketamine alone (5 mg/kg [KET5] or 10 mg/kg [KET10], IV), ketamine (10 mg/kg) with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, IV; KETVAL), diazepam alone (0.5 mg/kg, IV; VAL), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.1 mL/kg, IV; SAL). Intraocular pressures were measured immediately before and after injection and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection.

Results—IOP was increased over baseline values immediately after injection and at 5 and 10 minutes in the KET5 group and immediately after injection in the KETVAL group. Compared with the SAL group, the mean change in IOP was greater immediately after injection and at 5 and 10 minutes in the KET5 group. The mean IOP increased to 5.7, 3.2, 3.1, 0.8, and 0.8 mm Hg over mean baseline values in the KET5, KET10, KETVAL, SAL, and VAL groups, respectively. All dogs in the KET5 and most dogs in the KETVAL and KET10 groups had an overall increase in IOP over baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with baseline values and values obtained from dogs in the SAL group, ketamine administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg, IV, caused a significant and clinically important increase in IOP in dogs in which premedication was not administered. Ketamine should not be used in dogs with corneal trauma or glaucoma or in those undergoing intraocular surgery.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research