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SUMMARY

Undiluted uterine secretion was used to determine the concentration of total protein and the accumulated volume of uterine secretion after a bacterial inoculation in mares susceptible and resistant to chronic uterine infection (cui). The uterus of 6 susceptible and 5 resistant mares was inoculated with 5 × 106 Streptococcus zooepidemicus on the third day of estrus. Using a tampon inserted in the uterus, secretions were sampled at 5, 12, 24, and 36 hours after inoculation, followed by intrauterine lavage with phosphate buffered saline solution. The concentration of protein was determined in the undiluted secretion as well as in the uterine washing and the total amount of accumulated uterine secretion was calculated. Protein concentrations in plasma were compared before and after absorption by the tampon.

Protein concentration of plasma before and after absorption by the tampon did not differ. Mares susceptible to cui accumulated significantly (P < 0.001) more fluid in the uterus than mares resistant to cui, and uterine washings from the resistant mares were significantly (P < 0.05) more dilute than those from the susceptible mares. Significant differences in protein concentrations between susceptible and resistant mares were not found. It was concluded from this study that the described method to sample undiluted uterine secretion was practical and reliable for the analysis of protein concentration. Various concentrations of uterine secretions in washings from susceptible and resistant mares emphasizes the importance in using undiluted uterine secretions or dilution markers in washings when intrauterine products are analyzed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The relationship between histologic lesions in endometrial biopsy specimens and susceptibility to chronic uterine infection (cui) in mares was investigated. Mares were allotted to 4 groups on the basis of degree of endometrial lesions. Mares in group 1 (n = 6) had no pathologic changes, mares in group 2 (n = 5) had only mild pathologic changes, group-3 mares (n = 7) had moderate changes, and group-4 mares (n = 7) had severe inflammatory and fibrotic endometrial changes. Susceptibility to cui was determined by the inflammatory response to intrauterine inoculation of 5 × 106 Streptococcus zooepidemicus. The inoculum was given on the third day of behavioral estrus and in the presence of a follicle > 30 mm. Mares with > 1 neutrophil/5 high-magnification (400 ×) microscopic fields and > 20 colonies of S zooepidemicus at 96 hours after inoculation were considered to be susceptible to cui.

There was a significant association between biopsy grade and susceptibility to cui among the groups. Histologically normal endometrium was associated with resistance to cui, and severe histopathologic changes in the endometrium were associated with susceptibility to cui. Mild to moderate endometrial lesions did not correlate consistently with susceptibility or resistance to cui.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Four intrauterine treatment strategies were evaluated for effectiveness in mares that were confirmed to be susceptible to chronic uterine infection. Pretreatment samples were obtained at detection of estrus, and a genital strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus was infused into the uterus when a preovulatory (> 35 mm) follicle was detected. At 12 hours after inoculation, mares were assigned to 1 of 4 selected treatment groups: autologous plasma, 100 ml (n = 5); potassium penicillin, 5 million U in 100 ml of phosphate-buffered saline solution (pbss; n = 5); 10 mg of prostaglandin F in 100 ml of pbss (n = 5); and large-volume lavage with normal saline solution (1,000 ml increments). A fifth group, treated with vehicle alone (100 ml of pbss), served as a negative control (n = 7). All treatments were administered into the uterus. To assess the effectiveness of the treatment, samples for culture and cytologic examination were collected at 96 hours after bacterial inoculation. An effect of treatment was observed on the number of uterine neutrophils (P = 0.02) and growth of S zooepidemicus (P < 0.01). Intrauterine treatment with potassium penicillin, prostaglandin F, and largevolume uterine lavage significantly reduced the growth of S zooepidemicus (P < 0.01) as well as the number of neutrophils (P < 0.02). Autologous plasma reduced the number of neutrophils (P < 0.05), but not growth of S zooepidemicus. There was significant correlation between the number of uterine neutrophils and growth of S zooepidemicus for each treatment group (r = 0.57; P < 0.05).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether concentrations of dimeric inhibin (αβA) are greater in plasma and tumor fluid from mares with granulosa-theca cell tumors (GTCT), compared with concentrations in plasma and equine follicular fluid (eFF) from control mares.

Animals

6 mares with GTCT and 12 clinically normal mares.

Procedure

The αβA immunoradiometric assay used 2 antibodies, one against each subunit of inhibin (α and βA subunits). Tumor tissue, tumor fluid, and a single blood sample were collected at the time of surgical removal of the GTCT. A single blood sample was collected from 7 control mares during various stages of the estrous cycle. Five other control mares were ovariectomized when their ovaries contained growing follicles of 25 to 35 mm in diameter. A blood sample and eFF from the largest follicle were collected at the time of ovariectomy.

Results

Mares with GTCT had significantly greater plasma concentrations of αβA (mean ± SEM, 0.86 ± 0.53 ng of recombinant human-αβA/ml), compared with control mares (0.14 ± 0.02 ng/ml). Concentrations of αβA in tumor fluid and eFF were similar. Concentrations of αβA were significantly lower after ovariectomy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Dimeric inhibin concentration was higher in plasma from mares with GTCT than in plasma from control mares. Increased granulosa cell mass and loss of mechanisms regulating αβA release in mares with GTCT likely accounted for the increase in plasma concentrations. Measurement of αβA concentrations may be useful for identifying mares with GTCT. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1407–1410)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effect of semen extender and seminal plasma on postthaw motility and filtration through a glass wool-Sephadex (GWS) filter for frozen stallion semen.

Sample Population—7 stallions from which we collected ≥ 3 ejaculates/stallion.

Procedure—4 experiments were conducted to evaluate postthaw quality of frozen stallion semen. Kenney extender was compared with glucose-EDTA extender by use of various dilution rates that resulted in differing concentrations of seminal plasma. Stallions known to produce semen with poor postthaw quality were used to investigate whether a particular extender or dilution rate could improve ability of such semen to survive freeze-thaw procedures.

Results—Use of Kenney extender as the centrifugation extender significantly improved postthaw motility and GWS filtration, compared with glucose-EDTA. Extending semen at a dilution of 1:3 was significantly better than 1:1 for both motility and GWS filtration. In addition, including seminal plasma at a concentration of 5% in the cryopreserved semen resulted in significantly higher yield of spermatozoa after GWS filtration, compared with complete removal of SP or use of seminal plasma at 25%. Lastly, semen with poor postthaw quality had significantly improved postthaw quality in regard to motility and GWS filtration when semen was frozen with seminal plasma at a concentration of 5%, compared with semen frozen with seminal plasma at a concentration of 25%.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Use of Kenney extender at a high dilution (≥ 1:3) immediately after collection of semen can improve postthaw quality of frozen stallion semen. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:880–885)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the impact of antimicrobial-containing semen extender on the growth of Taylorella equigenitalis in semen culture-positive for contagious equine metritis (CEM) and the development of CEM after artificial insemination with CEM-positive semen extended with antimicrobial-containing semen extender.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—21 mature mares free of CEM, 1 mature stallion experimentally infected with CEM, and semen from a stallion naturally infected with CEM.

Procedures—CEM-positive semen was incubated in semen extender with and without antimicrobials (amikacin [final concentration, 1 g/L] and penicillin G potassium [0.63 g/L]) followed by determination of the number of colony-forming units of T equigenitalis. Mares were inseminated with raw, extended, or cryopreserved semen culture-positive for T equigenitalis and observed for clinical signs of CEM. Samples for bacterial culture were obtained from the uterus, clitoral sinuses, and clitoral fossa of mares 7, 14, and 21 days after artificial insemination.

Results—Antimicrobial-containing semen extender significantly reduced the number of colony-forming units of T equigenitalis in CEM-positive semen. Artificial insemination with raw CEM-positive semen resulted in clinical signs of CEM, whereas artificial insemination with extended or cryopreserved CEM-positive semen did not result in clinical signs of CEM.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Antimicrobial-containing semen extender significantly reduced the risk of dissemination of CEM. The inclusion of amikacin (1 g/L) and penicillin G potassium (0.63 g/L) in extended semen reduced the transmission of CEM from stallions to mares during artificial insemination, which may result in altered dissemination of the disease.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate use of fluprostenol, dexamethasone, and oxytocin for induction of parturition in alpacas, and to determine viability of the newborn crias.

Design—

Prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

Animals—

36 pregnant alpacas within 10 days of parturition.

Procedure—

Animals were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Plasma progesterone and plasma and urine estrone sulfate concentrations were measured for 5 days after treatment. Clinical signs of the neonates were determined.

Results—

Time between treatment and parturition was significantly shorter for animals that received fluprostenol than for animals in any other group. The highest dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg) caused fetal death. None of the other treatments induced early parturition. Time between birth and first suckling, body weight, rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate at birth and serum IgG concentration 24 hours after birth were not different between crias born after fluprostenol treatment and crias born to control alpacas.

Clinical Implications—

Fluprostenol was effective at inducing parturition in these alpacas, but dexamethasone and oxytocin were not. crias born after fluprostenol treatment were similar to crias born to control alpacas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1760–1762)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 19-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated at 265 days of gestation with a markedly distended abdomen and edema of the ventral portion of the abdomen.

Clinical Findings—The uterus was distended over the pelvic rim, making transrectal palpation of the fetus impossible. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed excessive amounts of fetal fluid. Results of analysis of fluid obtained via amnio- and allantocentesis confirmed that the amniotic cavity was large.

Treatment and Outcome—The mare was monitored for signs of weakness of the prepubic tendon and abdominal wall. The fetus and placenta were monitored for signs of stress and pending abortion. Flunixin meglumine and altrenogest were administered to the mare. Parturition was attended and occurred at 321 days' gestation. Postpartum complications in the mare included hypovolemic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. Both conditions were treated, and the mare recovered. The foal was considered small, had bilateral angular limb deformities, and was unable to nurse. The foal was given plasma for failure of passive transfer of immunity. Ten months later, the foal underwent procedures to correct limb deformities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydrops conditions are rare in horses, with hydrops allantois occurring more frequently than hydrops amnion; reportedly result in fetal or neonatal death; and may result in death of or injury to the mare. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal health in combination with supportive treatment of the mare can result in the safe progression of a hydrops pregnancy and the birth of a live foal.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association