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  • Author or Editor: Masanari Nakayama x
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Objective—To evaluate effects of transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into the CSF for the treatment of chronic spinal cord injury in dogs that had not responded by 1 month after decompressive surgery.

Animals—23 dogs.

Procedures—Dogs with paraplegia and loss of nociception in the pelvic limbs for at least 1 month after decompressive surgery were assigned to transplantation or control groups. Dogs in the transplantation group received BMSCs injected into the CSF 1 to 3 months after decompressive surgery. Dogs in the control group did not receive additional treatments. Improvements in gait, proprioceptive positioning, and nociception were evaluated by use of the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale for ≥ 6 months after BMSC transplantation.

Results—6 of 10 dogs in the transplantation group regained the ability to walk, whereas only 2 of 13 dogs in the control group regained the ability to walk. Scores for the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale in the transplantation group were significantly higher than scores in the control group at the endpoint of the study (6 months after BMSC transplantation or after decompressive surgery for the transplantation and control groups, respectively). Only 1 dog (transplantation group) recovered nociception. All dogs from both groups had fecal and urinary incontinence. No complications were observed in relation to BMSC transplantation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of BMSCs into the CSF caused no complications and could have beneficial effects on pelvic limb locomotion in dogs with chronic spinal cord injuries.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To assess whether the volume of extruded materials is correlated with neurologic severity in dogs with type I thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation (TL-IVDH).


70 client-owned small-breed dogs with type I TL-IVDH diagnosed between July 1, 2016, and June 30, 2018.


For this retrospective cohort study, the medical records of 70 dogs with surgically confirmed type I TL-IVDH were reviewed. The volume and height of the intervertebral disk and the area of the maximal transverse compressed spinal cord were measured using CT myelographic images. For each dog, the volume of the disk immediately cranial to the herniated disk was an internal control. Dogs were grouped on the basis of grade of neurologic severity.


Preoperative grades of neurologic severity were grade 2 in 7 (10%) dogs, grade 3 in 16 (23%) dogs, grade 4 in 28 (40%) dogs, and grade 5 in 19 (27%) dogs. The total volume of the affected intervertebral disks was significantly larger than the internal control. Weak positive correlation was found between the volume of the extruded materials into the vertebral canal and the grade of neurologic severity.


Our findings indicated that the total volume of the affected intervertebral disks is larger in dogs with type I TL-IVDH, and the volume of the extruded materials into the vertebral canal is weakly correlated with the neurologic severity.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare methods for harvesting canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and determine the biological properties of canine BMSCs at successive passages in vitro.

Sample—BMSCs collected from the femurs of 9 Beagles.

Procedures—A fibroblast assay was performed to compare 2 methods for harvesting BMSCs: the aspiration and perfusion method. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to evaluate the cell surface markers. Changes in proliferative activity were analyzed by examining radioactivity of hydrogen 3-thymidine. Cell senescence was studied via senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, and differentiation properties (osteogenesis and adipogenesis) were estimated in association with passage.

Results—The aspiration method yielded significantly more fibroblasts than the perfusion method. The cells harvested by both methods gave positive results for CD44 and CD90 and negative results for CD34 and CD45. After induction, the cells had osteogenic and adipogenic phenotypes. The biological properties of BMSCs harvested by the aspiration method were estimated in association with passage. With increasing number of passages, the proliferative activity was reduced and the proportion of cells with senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining was increased. The capacity of differentiation was reduced at passage 3.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The aspiration method was superior for collection of BMSCs. In early passages, canine BMSCs had the proliferative activity and potential of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, but this decreased with increased number of passages. Consideration of passage will be important to the success of any strategy that seeks to regenerate tissue though the use of BMSCs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research