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- Author or Editor: Masakazu Shimada x
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To investigate the effect of an excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) and change in compressive load on tensile forces experienced by the cranial cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments (CCL, MCL, and LCL, respectively) of canine stifle joints.
16 cadaveric stifle joints from 16 orthopedically normal Beagles.
Stifle joints were categorized into unchanged (mean TPA, 30.4°) and excessive (mean TPA before and after modification, 31.2° and 41.1°, respectively) TPA groups. The excessive TPA group underwent a TPA-increasing procedure (curvilinear osteotomy of the proximal aspect of the tibia) to achieve the desired TPA. A robotic system was used to apply a 30- and 60-N compressive load to specimens. The craniomedial band of the CCL, caudolateral band of the CCL, MCL, and LCL were sequentially transected; load application was repeated after each transection. Orthogonal force components were measured in situ. Forces on ligaments were calculated after repeated output force measurements as the contribution of each component was eliminated.
Increasing the compressive load increased tensile forces on the craniomedial and caudolateral bands of the CCL, but not on the MCL or LCL, in specimens of both groups. At the 60-N load, tensile force on the craniomedial band, but not other ligaments, was greater for the excessive TPA group than for the unchanged TPA group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that stress on the CCL may increase when the compressive load increases. The TPA-increasing procedure resulted in increased tensile force on the CCL at a 60-N compressive load without affecting forces on the MCL or LCL.
To retrospectively review the efficacy of combined surgery comprising dorsal laminectomy and dorsal fixation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate as treatment for dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS).
21 client owned dogs diagnosed with DLSS and treated surgically.
Based on clinical records, signalments, clinical signs, findings from orthopedic and neurological examinations, imaging findings, and postoperative complications were evaluated at the following time points: preoperatively, postoperatively, and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery.
In all 21 cases, clinical signs were alleviated, proprioceptive deficits were improved from 3 months after surgery, and no recurrence of clinical signs was observed during the observation period. Minor complications were observed in 6 cases (28.6%), including implant failure in 2 (9.5%), delayed healing of surgical wounds in 2 (9.5%), seroma in 1 (4.8%), and swelling of the affected area in 1 (4.8%). There was no case with major complications.
Combined surgery comprising dorsal laminectomy and dorsal fixation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate is a useful treatment that can improve long-term clinical signs in dogs with DLSS.
To determine the signalment and musculoskeletal morphology of small-breed dogs affected by medial patellar luxation (MPL) grade IV based on the age of the CT scan.
40 small-breed dogs (54 limbs) with MPL grade IV.
Dogs that had undergone corrective surgery for MPL grade IV and had performed CT of the hind limb before surgery were included. Signalment (age, body weight, sex, laterality, and breed) and concomitant cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR) were recorded. Femoral inclination angle, anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), femoral torsion angle, quadriceps muscle length to femoral length ratio (QML/FL), and patellar ligament length to patellar length were obtained by CT images. The dogs were categorized into 2 groups based on their age at the time of the CT scan, the skeletally immature group and the skeletally matured group. Signalment and group were included in the multiple regression analysis to determine the factors associated with each measurement parameter. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk of CrCL concomitant with age.
The multiple regression model demonstrated that the group was associated with the value of aLDFA and QML/FL. aLDFA was higher, and QML/FL was lower in group SI than in group SM. CrCLR was present in 5/54 limbs (9.2%), with a mean age of 70.8 months and it was associated with increasing age.
In Singleton’s classification, dogs classified as grade IV can be categorized into 2 groups based on musculoskeletal morphology and pathophysiology: the skeletally immature and skeletally matured types.