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  • Author or Editor: Masahiro Tamura x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs by means of 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography with time-left atrial area curve analysis and to assess repeatability and reproducibility of obtained measurements.

Animals—6 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Each dog underwent echocardiography twice on different days (3 nonconsecutive examinations/d). Images were analyzed with offline software; area of the left atrium was automatically calculated in each frame throughout the cardiac cycle to derive time-left atrial area curves. Variables used to assess left atrial phasic function (total, passive, and active emptying area and emptying fractions and mean active and total emptying rates) were calculated. Agreement between variables measured via speckle tracking echocardiography and a manual tracing method was assessed with modified Bland-Altman analysis. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were determined.

Results—Mean ± SD total, passive, and active emptying fractions of the left atrium were 49.8 ± 3.5%, 277 ± 4.0%, and 30.5 ± 4.3%, respectively. Mean ± SD total and active emptying rates were 16.0 ± 2.5 cm2/s and 25.1 ± 4.9 cm2/s, respectively. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were < 20% (range, 0.41% to 16.4%) for all variables except mean active emptying rate (between-day coefficient of variation, 29.2%). Agreement between variables measured via speckle tracking echocardiography and the manual tracing method was good, and differences between methods were nonsignificant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of left atrial phasic function via speckle tracking echocardiography was feasible; repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were adequate in healthy dogs. Studies are needed to determine clinical applicability in canine patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess liver and spleen stiffness in healthy dogs by use of a novel 2-D shear wave elastography (SWE) technique and to investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of the technique.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

2-D SWE was performed on each dog to assess liver and spleen stiffness. Repeatability (intraday variability) and reproducibility (interday variability) of 2-D SWE were investigated. For all 8 dogs, 2-D SWE was performed 3 times in 1 day (4-hour intervals) and on 3 separate days (1-week interval). Data were expressed as mean ± SD values for shear wave velocity and the Young modulus in the liver and spleen. Intraday and interday coefficients of variation were assessed for all variables.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD shear wave velocity obtained for the liver and spleen was 1.51 ± 0.08 m/s and 2.18 ± 0.27 m/s, respectively. Mean value for the Young modulus obtained for the liver and spleen was 6.93 ± 0.79 kPa and 14.66 ± 3.79 kPa, respectively. Elasticity values were significantly higher for the spleen than for the liver. Intraday and interday coefficients of variation for all variables were < 25% (range, 3.90% to 20.70%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

2-D SWE was a feasible technique for assessing liver and spleen stiffness of healthy dogs. Future studies on the application of 2-D SWE for dogs with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension are needed to evaluate the clinical applicability of 2-D SWE.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Equine α1-acid glycoprotein (α1 ag) was isolated from equine serum by successive ammonium precipitation, anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies, and gel filtration. Purified equine α1 ag had a molecular weight of 46,000 ± 1,000, and contained 31.4% carbohydrate. Gel isoelectric focusing revealed an isoelectric point range of 2.8 to 3.7. With immunoelectrophoresis, it was found that α1 ag migrated to the α1-globulin region.

Single radial immunodiffusion was used for quantitative measurement of α1 ag in equine serum. In clinically normal foals, serum α1 ag was undetectable (≤ 20 ng/ml) in ≤ 7-day-old foals, but was detected by 14 days. The α1 ag concentration (mean ± sd) increased to reach mean adult values of 99.23 ± 26.90 μg/ml by 1 year of age. The α1 ag concentration in pregnant mares decreased at 2 to 3 months before parturition, then gradually increased until 1 day after parturition, when a brief decrease was observed. The concentration increased again at 2 weeks after foaling, then a decrease was observed, after which the α1 ag concentration increased again by 2 to 4 months after parturition.

The concentration of serum α1 ag quickly rose to peak values 2 to 3 days after castration and jejunojejunostomy in adult horses, returning to baseline values by 14 to 28 days after surgery. The α1 ag was concluded to be an acute-phase reactive protein in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the expression of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in duodenal mucosa samples of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Animals—12 dogs with IBD and 6 healthy control Beagles.

Procedures—Duodenal mucosa biopsy samples were endoscopically obtained from dogs with IBD and healthy control Beagles. The expression of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8; E-cadherin; and β-catenin in the duodenal mucosa samples was determined by means of immunoblotting. The subcellular localization of E-cadherin in the duodenal mucosa samples was determined with immunofluorescence microscopy.

Results—The expression of each claudin and β-catenin was not significantly different between control dogs and dogs with IBD. However, expression of E-cadherin was significantly lower in duodenal mucosa samples of dogs with IBD than it was in samples obtained from healthy control dogs. Results of immunofluorescence microscopy indicated decreased intensity of E-cadherin labeling in the tips of villi in duodenal mucosa samples obtained from 6 dogs with IBD, compared with staining intensity for other dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated expression of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8 and β-catenin was not significantly different between duodenal mucosa samples obtained from control dogs and those obtained from dogs with IBD. However, E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in the villus epithelium in duodenal mucosa samples obtained from dogs with IBD versus samples obtained from control dogs, which suggested that decreased expression of that protein has a role in the pathogenesis of IBD in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research