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  • Author or Editor: Masaaki Endo x
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To determine complimentary DNA (cDNA) sequence and tissue distribution of canine brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and to investigate whether synthesis of canine BNP increases in association with cardiovascular dysfunction.


5 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs and 3 healthy adult Beagles.


Total RNA was extracted from normal canine hearts and was used in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure to isolate canine BNP cDNA. Sequence of the isolated cDNA was analyzed. Gene expression of canine BNP in various tissues from 2 mixed-breed dogs was investigated, using RT-PCR and northern blot analyses. Moreover, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of canine BNP, using northern blot analysis, was compared between grossly normal hearts from 3 Beagles and hearts from 3 mixed-breed dogs with acute myocardial infarction created by surgical ligation.


The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid residues of canine BNP precursor were 420 base pairs and 140 residues, respectively. Messenger RNA expression of canine BNP was detectable in the atria but not in the ventricles and the other tissues. Messenger RNA expression of canine BNP was, however, detectable in the infarcted portion of the ventricles. The amount of canine BNP mRNA in the infarcted ventricles was significantly increased, compared with that of noninfarcted ventricles.


The cDNA sequence of canine BNP was determined. Expression of canine BNP mRNA was detected not only in the atria but also in infarcted ventricles. Synthesis of canine BNP increases in association with ischemic myocardial injury. Canine BNP may be used as an indicator of severity of ventricular myocardial injury. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:860–864)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether mitral valve repair (MVR) under cardiopulmonary bypass would be an effective treatment for mitral regurgitation in small-breed dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—48 small-breed dogs (body weight, 1.88 to 4.65 kg [4.11 to 10.25 lb]; age, 5 to 15 years) with mitral regurgitation that underwent surgery between August 2006 and August 2009.

Procedures—Cardiopulmonary bypass was performed with a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. After induction of cardiac arrest, a mitral annuloplasty was performed, and the chordae tendineae were replaced with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene chordal prostheses. After closure of the left atrium and declamping to restart the heart, the thorax was closed.

Results—Preoperatively, cardiac murmur was grade 3 of 6 to 6 of 6, thoracic radiography showed cardiac enlargement (median vertebral heart size, 12.0 vertebrae; range, 9.5 to 14.5 vertebrae), and echocardiography showed severe mitral regurgitation and left atrial enlargement (median left atrium-to-aortic root ratio, 2.6; range, 1.7 to 4.0). 45 of 48 dogs survived to discharge. Three months after surgery, cardiac murmur grade was reduced to 0/6 to 3/6, and the heart shadow was reduced (median vertebral heart size, 11.1 vertebrae, range, 9.2 to 13.0 vertebrae) on thoracic radiographs. Echocardiography confirmed a marked reduction in mitral regurgitation and left atrium-to-aortic root ratio (median, 1.7; range, 1.0 to 3.0).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We successfully performed MVR under cardiopulmonary bypass in small-breed dogs, suggesting this may be an effective surgical treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation. Mitral valve repair with cardiopulmonary bypass can be beneficial for the treatment of mitral regurgitation in small-breed dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association