Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Masa-aki Oikawa x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search



To study the effects of extended transportation on the composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from horses.


30 horses (14 males, 16 females; 25 Thoroughbreds and 5 Thoroughbred-Arabian crossbreds; 27 to 30 months old) without a history or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on nontransported control horses (groups 1 and 2) and transported horses (group 3).


20 horses were used to determine the effect of 41 hours of transportation on the composition of BALF (group 3). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for recovered volume, number and distribution of nucleated cells, total protein and phospholipid concentrations, and phospholipid composition.


Total number of nucleated cells in BALF from group-3 horses increased by approximately fourfold after transportation. Total protein concentration in BALF from group-3 horses also increased by approximately fivefold after transportation. Total phosphorus concentrations in group-3 horses decreased significantly from time 0 to immediately after transportation. In group-3 horses, the most characteristic change in composition of BALF after transport was a significant decrease in the concentration of phosphatidylglycerol.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

The decrease in phosphatidylglycerol concentration in BALF after transportation indicates a reduction in the quantity of surfactant. This change may reflect either a decreased production of surfactant by alveolar type II epithelial cells or an increased removal of surfactant from the alveolar region. It is likely that extended transportation resulted in a decreased concentration of surfactant in BALF. Such a decrease may reduce the pulmonary defence mechanisms in the alveolar region, possibly resulting in infection. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:531–534)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The common, external, and internal carotid and occipital arteries were examined histologically at the trifurcation of the common carotid arteries in 13 Thoroughbred foals (0 to 30 days old) and 64 Thoroughbred adults (2 to 4 years old). Calcification in the media of the common carotid and external carotid arteries was observed in 3 of the 13 foals and in 30 of the 64 adult horses. Calcification resembled that seen in Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis in human beings, the cause of which is unknown.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research