Objective—To determine outcome of cystoscopic-guided transection for treatment of ectopic ureters in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—16 female dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent cystoscopic-guided transection of the membrane separating unilateral or bilateral ectopic ureters from the urethra and bladder between May 2005 and May 2008 were reviewed. Postoperative outcome was determined by use of telephone interviews conducted 1 to 36 months after the procedure.
Results—4 dogs had complete resolution of urinary incontinence with cystoscopic-guided transection alone, an additional 5 dogs had complete resolution with a combination of cystoscopic-guided transection and phenylpropanolamine administration, and an additional 4 dogs had an improvement in urinary control, although urinary incontinence persisted. Outcome could not be assessed in the remaining 3 dogs because of collagen injections in the urethra at the time of ureteral transection (n = 2) or nephrectomy secondary to unilateral hydronephrosis (1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cystoscopic-guided transection may be an acceptable alternative to traditional surgical correction of ectopic ureter in dogs. Most complications associated with the cystoscopic procedure were minor and easily managed.
Objective—To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics
and synovial fluid concentrations after oral administration
of single and multiple doses of celecoxib in
Animals—7 adult Greyhounds.
Procedure—Dogs received celecoxib (median
dose, 11.8 mg/kg [range, 11.5 to 13.6 mg/kg], PO,
q 24 h) for 10 days. Blood samples were collected
prior to administration of celecoxib and serially for
24 hours after the 1st and 10th doses were administered.
A synovial joint catheter was placed into a
stifle joint in each dog for collection of synovial fluid
samples. Concentrations of celecoxib in plasma and
synovial fluid were quantified by use of a validated
liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.
Identification of hydroxy- and carboxyl-celecoxib in
plasma and synovial fluid was also performed.
Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by
use of noncompartmental analysis.
Results—Administration of multiple doses of celecoxib
resulted in a significant decrease (40%) in median
area under the curve (AUC) values and a corresponding
decrease in median maximum concentrations
(Cmax; 2,620 to 2,032 ng/mL) between the 1st
and 10th doses. Synovial fluid concentrations were
less than the corresponding plasma concentrations at
all times except 24 hours after administration of the
10th dose of celecoxib.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Celecoxib distributes
into the synovial fluid of Greyhounds.
Although the exact mechanism for the decreases in
AUC and Cmax is not known, results suggested that
the plasma pharmacokinetics of celecoxib are different
after administration of multiple doses in
Greyhounds. These findings warrant further investigation
on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and
elimination of celecoxib in Greyhounds and other
breeds of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1441–1445)
Objective—To determine whether addition of a continuous,
local infusion of bupivacaine would improve
postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing total ear
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—16 dogs undergoing total ear canal ablation
(12 unilaterally and 4 bilaterally with > 1 month
Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to
receive morphine (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb]) at the end
of the procedure (10 procedures) or morphine and a
continuous, local infusion of bupivacaine (0.13 to 0.21
mg/kg/h [0.06 to 0.1 mg/lb/h]; 10 procedures). Dogs
were observed for 48 hours after surgery. Additional
doses of morphine were administered up to every 4
hours in dogs with signs of severe pain.
Results—Temperament, sedation, analgesia, and
cumulative pain scores were not significantly different
between groups any time after surgery. Recovery
score was significantly higher for dogs that received
bupivacaine than for control dogs 2 hours after extubation
but not at any other time. Serum cortisol concentration
was not significantly different between
groups at any time but, in both groups, was significantly
increased at the time of extubation, compared
with all other observation times. Total number of additional
doses of morphine administered was not significantly
different between groups. Bupivacaine was
not detected in the plasma of any of the dogs that
received the local bupivacaine infusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that addition of a continuous, local infusion of
bupivacaine did not significantly increase the degree of
postoperative analgesia in dogs that underwent total
ear canal ablation and were given morphine at the end
of surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:414–419)
Objective—To evaluate endoscopic liver biopsy and compare that technique with a standard coeliotomy biopsy technique in fish.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—30 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).
Procedures—10 fish were randomly assigned into control, coeliotomy, and coelioscopy groups. Anesthesia was performed with a recirculating anesthesia machine. Body weight, PCV, and total protein (TP) concentration in blood as well as plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were measured before and after surgery. Standard ventral coeliotomy or coelioscopy was performed, and the biopsy specimens were scored histologically.
Results—Coeliotomy and coelioscopy procedures were well tolerated without acute deaths. Blood TP concentration and PCV decreased after surgery in the coelioscopy group because of intracoelomic fluid administration to aid visualization. Minor changes in activities for hepatic and muscular enzyme activities were apparent, but were not significantly different between the coelioscopy and coeliotomy groups. Coelioscopy and coeliotomy yielded biopsy specimens of similar diagnostic quality. However, coelioscopy permitted a more extensive evaluation of the viscera, and all 10 surgical wounds healed completely, compared with severe wound dehiscence in 3 of 10 fish that underwent coeliotomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both coelioscopy and coeliotomy were capable of yielding antemortem liver biopsy specimens of diagnostic quality in catfish. Coelioscopy permitted a more detailed examination of the coelomic viscera through a smaller surgical incision, was less traumatic, and resulted in decreased wound dehiscence.
Objective—To evaluate outcomes of dogs and owner satisfaction and perception of their dogs’ adaptation following amputation of a thoracic or pelvic limb.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—64 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent limb amputation at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed. Signalment, body weight, and body condition scores at the time of amputation, dates of amputation and discharge from the hospital, whether a thoracic or pelvic limb was amputated, and reason for amputation were recorded. Histologic diagnosis and date of death were recorded if applicable. Owners were interviewed by telephone about their experience and interpretation of the dog's adaptation after surgery. Associations between perioperative variables and postoperative quality of life scores were investigated.
Results—58 of 64 (91%) owners perceived no change in their dog's attitude after amputation; 56 (88%) reported complete or nearly complete return to preamputation quality of life, 50 (78%) indicated the dog's recovery and adaptation were better than expected, and 47 (73%) reported no change in the dog's recreational activities. Body condition scores and body weight at the time of amputation were negatively correlated with quality of life scores after surgery. Taking all factors into account, most (55/64 [86%]) respondents reported they would make the same decision regarding amputation again, and 4 (6%) indicated they would not; 5 (8%) were unsure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This information may aid veterinarians in educating clients about adaptation potential of dogs following limb amputation and the need for postoperative weight control in such patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:786–792)