Objective—To determine the frequency, types, and severity of clinical signs; geographic distribution; and treatment information associated with toxicosis caused by 100% tea tree oil (TTO) in dogs and cats in the United States and Canada.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—337 dogs and 106 cats with evidence of exposure to 100% TTO.
Procedures—10-year incident data were retrieved from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center database from January 2002 to December 2012. Only evidenced or witnessed incidents assessed as toxicosis or suspected toxicosis were included. Signalment, amount of TTO used, intention of use, and outcome information were evaluated. Severity of illness and correlations with breed, sex, age, and weight were determined.
Results—TTO was intentionally used in 395 of 443 (89%) animals. The amount used ranged from 0.1 to 85 mL. Incidents were reported from 41 states, the District of Columbia, and 4 Canadian provinces. Exposure route was cutaneous in 221 (50%) animals, cutaneous and oral in 133 (30%), and oral in 67 (15%). Clinical signs developed within 2 to 12 hours and lasted up to 72 hours. The most common signs were increased salivation or drooling, signs of CNS depression or lethargy, paresis, ataxia, and tremors. A significant association with severity of illness was found for age and weight, with higher prevalence of major illness in younger and smaller cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intentional or accidental use of 100% TTO in dogs or cats caused serious signs of CNS depression, paresis, ataxia, or tremors within hours after exposure and lasting up to 3 days. Younger cats and those with lighter body weight were at greater risk of developing major illness.
Objective—To determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of apomorphine and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution used for emesis in dogs.
Design—Prospective observational study.
Animals—147 dogs that received apomorphine (IV or placed in the conjunctival sac) or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution (PO) to induce emesis after exposure to toxic agents.
Procedures—Data regarding signalment; agent information; type, dose, route, and number of emetic administrations; whether emesis was successful; number of times emesis occurred; percentage of ingested agent recovered; and adverse effects were collected via telephone during American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center operations and stored in a database for analysis. Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate emetic success rates.
Results—Apomorphine and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution successfully induced emesis in 59 of 63 (94%) and 76 of 84 (90%) of dogs, respectively. Mean time to onset of emesis after the first dose of emetic was 14.5 and 18.6 minutes when hydrogen peroxide (n = 37) and apomorphine (31) were used, respectively, with mean durations of 42 and 27 minutes, respectively. Mean estimates for recovery of ingested agents were 48% for hydrogen peroxide and 52% for apomorphine. Adverse effects were reported in 16 of 112 (14%) dogs for which information was available.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—3% hydrogen peroxide solution and apomorphine effectively induced emesis in dogs when used as directed. Emesis occurred within minutes after administration and helped recover substantial amounts of ingested agents. Adverse effects of both emetics were considered mild and self-limiting.