Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Mary F. Cooper x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

The study reported here was undertaken to determine the nephrotoxicosis associated with the administration of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, to dogs when administered during 6-hour saline solution diuresis. Cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, iv, every 21 days) was given to 61 dogs with malignant neoplasia with a total of 185 doses in 1 (n = 9 dogs), 2 (n = 26 dogs), 3 (n = 4 dogs), 4 (n = 9 dogs), 5 (n = 2 dogs), and 6 (n = 11 dogs) treatments. The cisplatin was given over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl solution (saline solution) was administered iv for 4 hours at a rate of 18.3 ml/kg of body weight/h. After the cisplatin infusion, saline solution diuresis was continued at the same rate for 2 hours. Before each treatment with cisplatin, dogs were evaluated with at least a physical examination, cbc, determination of serum urea nitrogen concentration, and in most cases, determination of serum creatinine concentration and urine specific gravity. Four of the 61 dogs (6.6%) developed clinically evident renal disease after 2 (1 dog), 3 (2 dogs), and 4 (1 dog) doses of cisplatin were administered. Three of the 4 dogs had preexisting disease of the urinary tract prior to the start of treatment. The survival time in dogs that developed renal disease (median, 145 days; range, 15 to 150 days) was similar to that of all dogs in this study (median, 154 days; range, 30 to 500 days), with 13 dogs still alive at the conclusion of the study. Three of the 4 dogs that developed renal disease were euthanatized because of tumor-related causes and chronic renal failure, whereas the fourth died as a direct result of nephrotoxicosis. Therefore, the 6-hour saline solution diuresis protocol used in this study to administer cisplatin appears to be effective in preventing nephrotoxicosis in dogs with tumors without preexisting urinary tract disease.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Of 82 dogs with thyroid carcinoma seen between January 1981 and October 1989, 20 had freely movable tumors without evidence of metastasis and were treated with surgical excision alone. Uncensored mean and median survival times for these 20 dogs were both 20.5 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, which censors for nontumor-related deaths and dogs lost to follow-up, indicated that median survival time was greater than 36 months. Seven dogs died of tumor-related causes: 2 died because of metastasis or local recurrence of the tumor, 5 died of treatment-related complications (eg, laryngeal paralysis, hypocalcemia, tracheostomy complications). Eight dogs died of unrelated causes; 1 dog was lost to follow-up at 26 months after surgery; 3 dogs were alive 19, 24, and 26 months after surgery. Cause of death could not be determined in the remaining dog. Long-term survival is possible following surgical removal of mobile thyroid carcinomas in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

One hundred twenty-six dogs with histologically confirmed, measurable malignant tumors were evaluated in a prospective study to determine the response to the antineoplastic drug mitoxantrone. Ninety-five dogs had been refractory to one or more treatment modalities (surgery, n = 57; chemotherapy other than mitoxantrone, n = 37; radiation, n = 4; whole body hyperthermia, n = 1). The extent of neoplastic disease was determined immediately before each dose of mitoxantrone was administered (1 to 10 doses, 2.5 to 5 mg/m2 of body surface area, iv) 21 days apart. Each dog was treated with mitoxantrone until the dog developed progressive disease or until the dog's quality of life diminished to an unacceptable level as determined by the owner or attending veterinarian.

A partial or complete remission (>50% volume reduction) was obtained in 23% (29/126) of all dogs treated. Tumors in which there was a partial or complete remission included lymphoma (11/32), squamous cell carcinoma (4/9), fibrosarcoma (2/9), thyroid carcinoma (1/10), transitional cell carcinoma (1/6), mammary adenocarcinoma (1/6), hepatocellular carcinoma (1/4), renal adenocarcinoma (1/1), rectal carcinoma (1/1), chondrosarcoma (1/2), oral malignant melanoma (1/12), cutaneous malignant melanoma (1/1), myxosarcoma (1/1), mesothelioma (1/1), and hemangiopericytoma (1/1).

Our results indicated that mitoxantrone induces measurable regression in various malignant tumors in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, when administered immediately after a 1-hour saline diuresis. Four treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, q 3 wk) were administered iv to 6 healthy dogs over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution was administered iv for 1 hour at a volume of 132 ml (kg)0.75. Each dog vomited at least once within 8 hours after each treatment was administered. Clinical status, body weight, and food consumption were normal throughout the 12-week study for 5 of the 6 dogs. The sixth dog developed acute renal failure and became acutely blind and deaf within 3 days after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen values remained within established normal limits in all dogs immediately prior to each treatment, and in 5 of 6 dogs evaluated 3 weeks after the final treatment. The serum creatinine value (3.3 mg/dl) obtained from the Beagle euthanatized 2 weeks after the fourth treatment was above established normal values. Despite normalcy for all but 1 of the creatinine values, serum creatinine concentration obtained 3 weeks after the final treatment with cisplatin was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than pretreatment values. When compared with data from all other evaluation periods, significant decreases in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by exogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) and endogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) creatinine clearance testing, were identified 3 weeks after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Neutrophil counts decreased significantly below pretreatment values at the third (P = 0.009), fourth (P < 0.0001), and fifth (P < 0.0001) evaluation period. We concluded that cisplatin can be administered with biochemical evidence, but not necessarily clinical evidence, that renal dysfunction may develop after 4 treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2, iv) are administered to dogs, using a 1-hour diuresis protocol.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

One hundred twenty-nine dogs with histologically confirmed malignant tumors were used in a prospective study to determine the toxicity of the new dihydroxyquinone derivative of anthracene, mitoxantrone, which was administered iv at 21-day intervals at dosages ranging from 2.5 to 5 mg/m2 body surface area. Each dog was evaluated for signs of toxicosis for 3 weeks after each dose was administered or until the dog died, whichever came first. The number of dogs in each evaluation period were as follows: 1 dose (n = 129), 2 doses (n = 82), 3 doses (n = 43), 4 doses (n = 26), 5 doses (n = 19), 6 doses (n = 9), 7 doses (n = 6), 8 doses (n = 5), 9 doses (n = 3), and 10 doses (n = 1). The most common signs of toxicosis were vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and sepsis secondary to myelosuppression. None of the dogs died of complications resulting from mitoxantrone treatment. Dogs with signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from administration of the first dose of mitoxantrone were 95 times (P = 0.003) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the second dose of mitoxantrone. Similarly, dogs that developed signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the administration of the second dose were 34 times (P < 0.001) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the administration of the third dose. With each 1 mg/m2 increase in mitoxantrone, the odds of developing signs of toxicosis increased by 5.9 fold (P < 0.001). The performance status (modified Karnofsky performance scheme) of each dog was not adversely affected to a significant extent by mitoxantrone-induced toxicosis until the fifth dose (P = 0.0008). Cardiac toxicosis was not detected. Mitoxantrone was also administered iv to 4 clinically normal dogs, at a dosage of 5 mg/m2 of body surface area, a decrease in the neutrophil count was seen, with the nadir occurring on day 10 (mean ± sem: 1,159 ± 253 cells/μl; range, 480 to 1,680 cells/μl). Tumor-bearing dogs did not seem to have the same degree of myelosuppression (mean ± sem, 6,263 ± 1,230 cells/μl; range, 228 to 18,600 cells/μl).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association