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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A retrospective study was conducted to establish the prerace venous acid-base and blood gas values of Standardbred horses at rest using big data analytics.

SAMPLES

Venous blood samples (73,382) were collected during seven racing seasons from 3 regional tracks in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Horses were detained 2 hours prior to race time.

PROCEDURES

A mixed-effects linear regression model was used for estimating the marginal model adjusted mean (marginal mean) for all major outcomes. The interaction between age and gender, track, and the interaction between month, treatment (furosemide), and year were the major confounders included in the model. Random effects were set on individual animal nested within trainer. Partial pressure of venous carbon dioxide (PVCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PVO2), and pH were measured, and base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), and bicarbonate (HCO3 ) were calculated.

RESULTS

Significant (P < .001) geographical differences in track locations were seen. Seasonal reductions in acid-base values started in January with significant (P < .001) decreases from adjacent months seen in June, July, and August followed by a gradual return. There were significant increases (P < .001) in BE and TCO2 and decreases in PVO2 with age. Significant differences (P < .001) in acid-base values were seen when comparing genders. A population of trainers were significantly different (P < .001) from the marginal mean and considered outliers.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In a population of horses, big data analytics was used to confirm the effects of geography, season, prerace furosemide, gender, age, and trainer influence on blood gases and the acid-base profile.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration in Standardbred racehorses by means of a novel ELISA following validation of the assay for use with equine plasma samples.

SAMPLE Plasma samples obtained from 25 Thoroughbreds for use in assay validation and from 319 Standardbred racehorses at rest 2 to 2.5 hours prior to warm-up and racing.

PROCEDURES A sandwich ELISA was developed with equine anti–IL-6 polyclonal antibody and the biotin-streptavidin chemical interaction to enhance sensitivity. The assay was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy by use of both recombinant and endogenous proteins.

RESULTS For the assay, cross-reactivity with other human and equine cytokines was very low or absent. Serial dilution of plasma samples resulted in proportional decreases in reactivity, indicating high specificity of the method. Partial replacement of detection antibody with capture antibody or pretreatment of samples with capture antibody caused assay signals to significantly decrease by 55%. The inter- and intra-assay precisions were ≤ 13.6% and ≤ 9.3%, respectively; inter- and intra-assay accuracies were within ranges of ± 14.1% and ± 8.6%, respectively, at concentrations from 78 to 5,000 pg/mL, and the sensitivity was 18 pg/mL. Plasma IL-6 concentration varied widely among the 319 Standardbreds at rest (range, 0 to 193,630 pg/mL; mean, 6,153 pg/mL; median, 376 pg/mL).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This ELISA method proved suitable for quantification of IL-6 concentration in equine plasma samples. Plasma IL-6 concentration was high (> 10,000 pg/mL) in 9.1% of the Standardbred racehorses, which warrants further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of a single dose of the NSAIDs phenylbutazone, firocoxib, flunixin meglumine, and ketoprofen on concentrations of growth factors and cytokines in autologous protein solution (APS) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

ANIMALS

6 adult university-owned horses.

METHODS

For the first phase, 6 horses were randomized to receive ketoprofen (1,000 mg) or flunixin meglumine (500 mg) IV. Blood was obtained and processed for APS (Pro-Stride) and PRP (Restigen) before and 6 hours after administration of NSAIDs. Horses underwent a 2-week washout period, after which the protocol was repeated using a crossover design. For the second phase, following at least a 2-week washout period, the study protocol was repeated with phenylbutazone (1 g) or firocoxib (57 mg) administered orally. Plasma was collected 6 hours after administration for evaluation of drug concentrations, and APS and PRP were analyzed for concentrations of drug, platelets, leukocytes, and several growth factors and cytokines (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor, TGF-β1, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) before and 6 hours after administration of NSAIDs using immunoassays.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in concentrations of cytokines or growth factors before or after administration of any NSAID. There were significant differences in concentrations of leukocytes and platelets based on both product and time. NSAID concentrations in plasma were not significantly different from concentrations in APS and PRP.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results help guide clinicians on the appropriate use of these NSAIDs in conjunction with the processing of APS and PRP, which is unlikely to significantly alter the final product after single-dose administration.

Open access