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To identify mutations in canine mammary tumors.


10 tumor-bearing dogs.


Culture of neoplastic cells originating from mammary tumors was performed, and trypsin-G banding was used for cytogenetic investigations. The same tumors were subjected to molecular genetic screening by use of DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, DNA elution, and DNA sequencing for ras oncogenes and the p53 tumor suppressor gene.


A broad spectrum of chromosome aberrations was observed, including trisomies, reciprocal translocations, and structural and numerical X-chromosome alterations and deletions. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a tumor suppressor p53 gene mutation in codon 249 of exon 7 in one instance. Interestingly, analyzed mammary tumors were free of mutations in N-ras, K-ras and H-ras, exons 1 and 2.


Chromosome alterations are wide-spread in canine mammary tumors, but no ras family mutations were detected in tumors from these 10 dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge about chromosome, oncogene, and tumor suppressor gene damage could be helpful for diagnosis and prognosis of neoplastic diseases in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:69–78)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate changes of glycoconjugate in uterine glands of endometrial tissues obtained from mares.

Animals—50 adult mares.

Procedure—Uterine biopsy samples were collected during the breeding season and analyzed histologically for signs of chronic endometrial degeneration. Stage of the estrous cycle was established, using clinical examination and determination of hormonal status. Uterine tissue samples were analyzed, using lectin histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques (estrogen and progesterone receptors). Connective tissues were stained to determine alterations of ground substance in periglandular fibrosis.

Results—Of 50 mares, 30 (60%) were classified as normal or having modest alterations, and 20 (40%) were classified as having moderate or severe endometrial degeneration. In normal equine endometrium, several lectins (Helix pomatia agglutinin, Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, Ricinus communis I agglutinin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin) bound to glycoconjugates of the luminal epithelium and openings of uterine glands. Lectin binding patterns of cystic dilated glands or fibrotic glands in endometrial samples were remarkably strong, whereas normal surrounding cells remained unstained. Lotus tetragonolobus lectin was not suitable for detecting endometrial alterations. Connective tissues stained with Alcian blue and results of Hale colloidal-iron binding revealed acidic ground substance in periglandular fibrosis. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were evenly distributed in healthy and affected endometrial samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glycoconjugate patterns of uterine glands were altered in mares with chronic endometrial degeneration. Therefore, uterine secretions are likely to be altered. These changes are not induced by changes in content of estrogen and progesterone receptors in endometrial tissues. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:840–845)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research