Objective—To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (FMCP) in dogs.
Animals—102 dogs (112 elbow joints) suspected to have FMCP.
Procedures—Elbows were examined ultrasonographically prior to surgery for evidence of fragmentation, fissuring, or deformation of the medial coronoid process; thickening of the joint capsule; joint effusion; and secondary new bone formation. Results were compared with intraoperative findings.
Results—At surgery, 51 (46%) joints had free fragments, 55 (49%) had nondisplaced fragments, and 6 (5%) did not have any fragments or fissures. Fragments were not seen ultrasonographically in 23 of the 51 (45%) joints in which a free fragment was found during surgery or in 50 of the 55 (91%) joints in which a nondisplaced fragment was found during surgery. Accuracy of using ultrasonographic evidence of any medial coronoid process abnormality (ie, a medial coronoid process fragment, deformation of the medial coronoid process, or both) for diagnosis of medial coronoid process fragmentation was 77%. The kappa coefficient for the level of agreement between ultrasonographic (ie, any medial coro-noid process abnormality) and surgical findings was −0.014, indicating that there was no agreement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ultrasonography was of limited diagnostic value in detecting FMCP in dogs.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of seizures in cats after head trauma.
Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—52 cats with head trauma.
Procedures—Information was obtained from medical records of cats with head trauma and via telephone interviews of owners at least 2 years after cats had head trauma. Severity of head trauma in cats was classified with the modified Glasgow coma scale (mGCS), and the association between scores and development of seizures was determined.
Results—9 cats had moderate head trauma (mGCS score, 9 to 14), and 43 cats had mild head trauma (mGCS score, 15 to 18). None of the cats developed seizures during the follow-up period (≥ 2 years after head injury). The calculated 95% confidence interval for prevalence of seizures in cats after head injury was 0% to 5.6%. There was no significant relationship between severity of head trauma and the risk of seizures in cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the probability that cats with mild to moderate head trauma would develop posttraumatic seizures was low. However, clinicians should monitor cats with a history of head trauma for development of secondary epilepsy.
Objective—To measure the absolute and relative volumes of cranial vaults of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and other brachycephalic dogs for the purpose of evaluating a possible association between the volume of the caudal fossa (fossa caudalis cerebri; CF) and existence of Chiari-like malformation (CLM) and syringohydromyelia in CKCSs.
Animals—40 CKCSs and 25 brachycephalic dogs.
Procedures—The intracranial vault of all dogs was evaluated via computed tomography followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Volumes of the CF and the rostral and medial fossa (fossa rostralis et medialis cerebri) were determined. The ratio of the absolute volumes was calculated as the volume index (VI).
Results—All CKCSs had cranial characteristics consistent with CLM. There were no significant differences between CKCSs and brachycephalic dogs with respect to the VI and absolute volumes of the CF and rostral and medial fossas. The CKCSs without syringohydromyelia (n = 26) had a median VI of 0.1842, and CKCSs with syringohydromyelia (14) had a median VI of 0.1805. The median VI of other brachycephalic dogs was 0.1864. The VI did not differ among these 3 groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that descent of the cerebellum into the foramen magnum and the presence of syringohydromyelia in CKCSs are not necessarily associated with a volume reduction in the CF of the skull.
Objective—To investigate the use of ultrasonography to assess nonunion of fractures in dogs and to compare results of ultrasonography, radiography, and histologic examination.
Sample Population—8 nonunion fractures in 6 dogs (1 each in 5 dogs and 3 in 1 dog); dogs ranged from 7 to 94 months of age and weighed 6 to 30 kg.
Procedures—Diagnostic assessment consisted of complete clinical and orthopedic examinations, radiography, B-mode (brightness mode) ultrasonography, and power Doppler ultrasonography. Biopsy samples were obtained during surgery for histologic examination. They were stained with H&E and immunolabeled by use of anti-CD31 antibodies. Correlations of power Doppler score, power Doppler count, vessel area, and radiographic prediction with the mean number of vessels counted per hpf were derived.
Results—Radiographically, 7 of 8 nonunion fractures were diagnosed as atrophic and were therefore estimated to be nonviable. Vascularity of nonunion fractures during power Doppler ultrasonography ranged from nonvascularized to highly vascularized. Absolute vessel count during histologic examination ranged from 0 to 63 vessels/hpf; 5 nonunion sites had a mean count of > 10 vessels/hpf. Vascularity during power Doppler ultrasonography was highly correlated with the number of vessels per hpf, whereas the correlation between the radiographic assessment and histologic evaluation was low.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radiographic prediction of the viability of nonunion fractures underestimated the histologically assessed vascularity of the tissue. Power Doppler ultrasonography provided a more accurate estimation of the viability of the tissue and therefore the necessity for debridement and autografts during revision surgery.
Objective—To examine outcome data for cats and dogs with congenital internal hydrocephalus following treatment via ventriculoperitoneal shunting to determine treatment-associated changes in neurologic signs, the nature and incidence of postoperative complications, and survival time.
Design—Retrospective multicenter case series.
Animals—30 dogs and 6 cats with congenital internal hydrocephalus (confirmed via CT or MRI).
Procedures—Medical records for dogs and cats with internal hydrocephalus that underwent unilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation from 2001 through 2009 were evaluated. Data collected included the nature and incidence of postoperative complications, change in clinical signs following surgery, and survival time. To compare pre- and postoperative signs, 2-way frequency tables were analyzed with a 1-sided exact McNemar test.
Results—8 of 36 (22%) animals developed postoperative complications, including shunt malfunction, shunt infection, and seizure events. Three dogs underwent shunt revision surgery. Thirteen (36%) animals died as a result of hydrocephalus-related complications or were euthanized. Following shunt implantation, clinical signs resolved in 7 dogs and 2 cats; overall, 26 (72%) animals had an improvement of clinical signs. After 18 months, 20 animals were alive, and the longest follow-up period was 9.5 years. Most deaths and complications occurred in the first 3 months after shunt placement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation is a viable option for treatment of dogs or cats with congenital hydrocephalus. Because complications are most likely to develop in the first 3 months after surgery, repeated neurologic and imaging evaluations are warranted during this period.