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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Zoometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis were evaluated as methods of body composition determination in healthy cats. Zoometric and impedance measurements were taken on 22 anesthetized adult cats of various ages, genders, breeds, and body weights. The cats were then euthanatized. The bodies were processed through a tissue homogenizer and free-catch specimens were taken, freeze-dried, and analyzed for total body water, protein, fat, potassium, and ash content. Stepwise regression analysis was implemented to identify statistically significant relationships between the chemically determined dependent variables (total body water, protein, potassium, fat-free mass, fat mass, and percent body fat) and the zoometric measurements, with or without bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis revealed high correlations between the dependent variables and the corresponding predicted values of those variables. Body weight alone was a poor predictor of body composition in these cats. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that zoometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements may serve as practical, noninvasive, simple, and accurate methods for estimating body composition in domestic cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine energy expenditure (EE) of apparently resting, client-owned dogs with malignant or nonmalignant diseases that were recovering from anesthesia and surgery, and compare those values with values from clinically normal, apparently resting, client-owned dogs.

Animals

40 apparently resting, client-owned dogs that had been given general anesthesia for various elective and nonelective surgical procedures, and 30 apparently resting, clinically normal client-owned dogs used as controls.

Procedure

EE was determined, using an open-flow indirect calorimetry system. Each dog was evaluated before and after surgery (0, 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery, then at suture removal > 14 days later) and compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). Parameters evaluated were rate of oxygen consumption (Vo2 /kg of body weight: ml/min/kg; Vo2 /kg0.75: ml/min/kg0.75), EE (EE/kg: kcal/kg/d; EE/kg0.75: kcal/kg0.75/d), and respiratory quotient.

Results

Surgery and anesthesia did not significantly alter any of these parameters at any time assessed in any group. The pretreatment Vo. and EE were significantly lower in the dogs with cancer, compared with dogs of other groups.

Conclusions

These data suggest that the EE of a re-stricted group of dogs that undergo anesthesia and surgery for malignant and nonmalignant conditions does not increase from baseline values or when compared with values in clinically normal, client-owned dogs.

Clinical Relevance

This information may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs recovering from anesthesia and surgery. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1321-1326)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether apparently resting dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies have increased resting energy expenditure (REE), compared with clinically normal dogs.

Animals

46 client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies and 30 client-owned dogs that were clinically normal.

Procedure

Apparently resting, client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies before (n = 46) and 4 to 6 weeks after (n = 30) surgical removal of tumors were compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). An open flow indirect calorimetry system was used to determine the following: rate of oxygen consumption (ml/min/kg of body weight); rate of carbon dioxide production (mls/min/kg), REE (kcal/kg/d), and respiratory quotient. Because of the wide range of body weight, REE and oxygen consumption were also expressed per kg of body weight0.75.

Results

Surgical removal of the tumor did not significantly alter any of the variables measured when all dogs with tumors were assessed as a single group, or when the dogs were divided on the basis of having the following types of tumors: carcinomas and sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and mammary adenocarcinomas. None of the data obtained prior to surgical treatment from any of the dogs grouped by tumor type were significantly different from clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions

REE (54.4 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 125 ± 19 kcal/kg0.75/d) and, presumably, caloric requirements of dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies are not significantly different from those obtained from clinically normal dogs (53.9 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 116 ± 32 kcal/kg0.75/d). Furthermore, these variables do not change significantly when the tumor is excised and the dog is reassessed after 4 to 6 weeks.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge that REE in dogs with solid tumors is not significantly different from REE of clinically normal dogs may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1463-1467)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin sulfate in healthy llamas after IV administration of a single bolus and after repeated parenteral administration.

Design

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals

19 clinically normal, adult male llamas for the single-dose trial and 10 of the 19 llamas for the multiple-dose trial.

Procedure

In the first trial, llamas were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg of body weight, IV) as a single bolus, and serum gentamicin concentration was monitored over the next 48 hours. 2 months later, llamas were given gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg) IV for the first day, then IM every 8 hours for 7 days. Serum gentamicin concentration and indices of renal function and damage were monitored during the 7 days.

Results

There were no significant dose- or time-related differences in clearance of the drug; volume of distribution; apparent coefficients of the distribution and elimination phases, α and β, respectively; mean residence time; or distribution (t½α) and elimination phase (tt/2β) half-lives. The 5 mg/kg IV kinetic study revealed t½β, of 14.5 ± 5.06 minutes and t½β of 166 ± 20.5 minutes. The 2.5 mg/kg IV kinetic study revealed t½α of 17.7 ± 6.59 minutes and t½β of 165 ± 40.3 minutes. Peak serum gentamicin concentration averaged 10.10 μg/ml in the multiple-dose trial, and trough concentration averaged 1.50 μg/ml.

Conclusions

Dose effects were not observed for gentamicin clearance, volume of distribution, or half-lives. Multiple dosing at 2.5 mg/kg every 8 hours does not appear to cause renal impairment in healthy llamas.

Clinical Relevance

Gentamicin pharmacokinetic variables in llamas appear to resemble those in other ruminant species. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1193–1199)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in horses with putative uremic encephalopathy.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 horses with renal failure and neurologic disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other organ system.

Procedure—Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic, or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were reviewed.

Results—Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic data, and postmortem findings were consistent with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single criterion was not determined to be pathognomonic for uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic encephalopathy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:560–566)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate plasma glipizide concentration and its relationship to plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy cats administered glipizide orally or transdermally.

Animals—15 healthy adult laboratory-raised cats.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (5 mg of glipizide, PO or transdermally) and a control group. Blood samples were collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and 4, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 hours after administration to determine concentrations of insulin, glucose, and glipizide.

Results—Glipizide was detected in all treated cats. Mean ± SD transdermal absorption was 20 ± 14% of oral absorption. Mean maximum glipizide concentration was reached 5.0 ± 3.5 hours after oral and 16.0 ± 4.5 hours after transdermal administration. Elimination half-life was variable (16.8 ± 12 hours orally and 15.5 ± 15.3 hours transdermally). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased in all treated cats, compared with concentrations in control cats. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower 2 to 6 hours after oral administration, compared with after transdermal application; concentrations were similar between treatment groups and significantly lower than for control cats 10 to 24 hours after treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transdermal absorption of glipizide was low and inconsistent, but analysis of our results indicated that it did affect plasma glucose concentrations. Transdermal administration of glipizide is not equivalent to oral administration. Formulation, absorption, and stability studies are required before clinical analysis can be performed. Transdermal administration of glipizide cannot be recommended for clinical use at this time. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:581–588)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine essential fatty acid concentrations in plasma and tissue before and after supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

Animals—30 dogs with atopic dermatitis.

Procedure—Dogs received supplemental flaxseed oil (200 mg/kg/d), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 50 mg/kg/d)-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 35 mg/kg/d), or mineral oil as a placebo in a doubleblind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Clinical scores and plasma and cutaneous concentrations of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid (α-LLA), EPA, DHA, prostaglandin E2, and leukotriene B4 were determined.

Results—Total plasma concentrations of α-LLA and EPA increased and those of arachidonic acid decreased significantly with administration of EPADHA, and concentrations of α-LLA increased with flaxseed oil supplementation; nevertheless, there was no significant change in the concentrations of these fatty acids or eicosanoids in the skin. There was no correlation between clinical scores and plasma or cutaneous concentrations for any of the measured fatty acids or eicosanoids.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that at the dose used, neither the concentrations of fatty acids in skin or plasma nor a decrease in the production of inflammatory eicosanoids was a major factor involved in the mechanism of action in dogs with atopy that responded to fatty acid supplementation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:868–873)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether alterations in carbohydrate metabolism exist in dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies but without evidence of weight loss or cachexia.

Animals

90 dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies and 18 control dogs.

Procedure

An intravenous glucose tolerance test was done in 90 dogs with previously untreated nonhematopoietic malignancies and in 18 clinically normal dogs. These dogs also had no evidence of unrelated diseases that would affect glucose metabolism. None of the dogs had evidence of cachexia. Samples were assayed for glucose, lactate, and insulin concentrations. This procedure was repeated for 45 of the tumor-bearing dogs from which all gross evidence of tumor was completely excised and evidence of diseases that would alter carbohydrate metabolism did not exist.

Results

The mean of all time points during the intravenous glucose tolerance test (ie, 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes) for lactate (12.9 ± 6.7 mg/dl) and insulin (69.1 ± 44.9 µU/ml) concentrations in untreated dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies were significantly higher than values for controls (lactate, 9.7 ± 4.3 mg/dl; and insulin, 31.7 ± 11.5 µU/ml). This increase in lactate and insulin values did not return to normal when the dogs were rendered free of all observable evidence of cancer after surgery.

Conclusions

Carbohydrate metabolism is altered in dogs with a variety of nonhematopoietic malignancies and these abnormalities do not abate when dogs are rendered free of gross evidence of malignant disease after surgery.

Clinical Relevance

Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism may result in decreased quality of life and may be associated with the paraneoplastic syndrome, cancer cachexia. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:277–281)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Eighteen 6-month-old male Beagles with normal renal function were allotted at random to 3 groups of 6 dogs each. For 21 days, each group was fed a diet that was similar except for protein content (high protein, 27.3%; medium protein, 13.7%; and low protein, 9.4%). After the conditioning period, gentamicin was administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight, IM, every 8 hours for 8 days, and the respective diet was continued. Clearance of endogenous creatinine, 24-hour urinary excretion of protein and enzymes (γ-glutamyltransferase, and N-acetyl- β-d-glucosaminidase, and fractional clearance of sodium and potassium (%) were determined before and after dietary protein conditioning and on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 of gentamicin administration. Additionally, trough serum gentamicin concentration was determined on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 of gentamicin administration. At the end of the study, all dogs were euthanatized; renal histologic features were graded, using a continuous ranking scale, and renal cortical gentamicin concentrations were measured. Data were ranked and analyzed, using a nonparametric equivalent of a two-way anova; P < 0.05 was considered significant.

After the dietary conditioning period (prior to gentamicin), dogs fed the high-protein diet had higher endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of protein, compared with dogs fed the low-protein diet. Differences existed among groups after 8 days of gentamicin administration. Dogs fed the high-protein diet had higher creatinine clearance, lower serum creatinine concentration, lower fractional clearance of sodium, lower urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and lower trough serum gentamicin concentration, compared with dogs fed the medium- and low-protein diets. Dogs fed the high-protein diet also had lower urinary excretion of protein and lower fractional clearance of potassium, compared with dogs fed the low-protein diet. There was no difference in urinary excretion of γ-gluta-myltransferase among groups on day 8 of the study. Proximal tubular necrosis was more severe in dogs fed the medium-protein diet, compared with dogs fed the high-protein diet; however, there were no differences in renal cortical gentamicin concentrations among groups. In conclusion, feeding the high-protein diet prior to and during gentamicin administration reduced nephrotoxicosis in these dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research