Objective—To evaluate use of a diode laser to induce tendinopathy in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of horses.
Animals—4 equine cadavers and 5 adult horses.
Procedures—Cadaveric SDFT samples were exposed to a diode laser at various energy settings to determine an appropriate energy for use in in vivo experiments; lesion size was assessed histologically. In vivo experiments involved laser energy induction of lesions in the SDFT (2 preliminary horses [0, 25, 75, and 87.5 J] and 3 study horses [0 and 125 J]) and assessment of lesions. Study duration was 21 days, and lesions were assessed clinically and via ultrasonography, MRI, and histologic evaluation.
Results—Lesion induction in cadaveric tissues resulted in a spherical cavitated core with surrounding tissue coagulation. Lesion size had a linear relationship (R2 = 0.9) with the energy administered. Size of in vivo lesions in preliminary horses indicated that larger lesions were required. In study horses, lesions induced with 125 J were ultrasonographically and histologically larger than were control lesions. At proximal and distal locations, pooled (preliminary and study horses) ultrasonographically assessed lesions were discrete and variable in size (mean ± SEM lesion percentage for control lesions, 8.5 ± 3%; for laser lesions, 12.2 ± 1.7%). Ultrasonography and MRI measurements were associated (R2 > 0.84) with cross-sectional area measurements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vivo diode laser–induced lesions did not reflect cadaveric lesions in repeatable size. Further research is required before diode lasers can reliably be used for inducing tendinopathy.
Objective—To determine whether treatment with
selamectin would reduce clinical signs of flea allergy
dermatitis (FAD) in dogs and cats housed in flea-infested
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—22 dogs and 17 cats confirmed to have FAD.
Procedure—Animals were housed in carpeted pens
capable of supporting the flea life cycle and infested
with 100 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on days –13 and
–2 and on alternate weeks with 10 to 20 fleas. On day
0, 11 dogs and 8 cats were treated with selamectin (6
mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb]). Dogs were retreated on day 30;
cats were retreated on days 30 and 60. All animals
were examined periodically for clinical signs of FAD.
Flea counts were conducted at weekly intervals.
Results—Throughout the study, geometric mean flea
counts exceeded 100 for control animals and were ≤ 11
for selamectin-treated animals. Selamectin-treated
cats had significant improvements in the severity of
miliary lesions and scaling or crusting on days 42 and
84, compared with conditions on day –8, and in severity
of excoriation on day 42. In contrast, control cats did
not have any significant improvements in any of the
clinical signs of FAD. Selamectin-treated dogs had significant
improvements in all clinical signs on days 28
and 61, but in control dogs, severity of clinical signs of
FAD was not significantly different from baseline severity
at any time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that topical administration of selamectin, even without
the use of supplementary environmental control
measures and with minimal therapeutic intervention,
can reduce the severity of clinical signs of FAD in dogs
and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:639–644)
To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.
A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.
SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.