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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify factors that may have influenced veterinarians’ decisions to not pursue careers in clinical academic veterinary medicine.

SAMPLE

363 board-certified veterinarians.

PROCEDURES

An online survey, open from July 7 to July 21, 2015, was used to gather data from board-certified veterinarians who were members of ≥ 1 of the 22 specialty organizations recognized by the American Board of Veterinary Specialties of the AVMA. Responses from those who reported never to have held an academic appointment were included in the study. Results were compiled and analyzed by gender and clinical discipline.

RESULTS

Approximately 10,000 board-certified veterinarians were solicited to participate in the survey, and 1,314 (13.1%) responded. Among those, 363 (27.6%) reported never having held an academic position. Females more commonly reported no interest in teaching (44/185 [23.8%]) and disagreement with the statement that compensation in academic medicine was too low (39/164 [23.8%]), compared with responses by males (24/158 [15.2%] and 22/148 [14.9%], respectively). The strongest magnitude of interrater agreement was for the paired survey statements regarding too much bureaucracy and excessive expectation for committee and administrative work (weighted κ, 0.569).

CONCLUSIONS

Many factors contribute to veterinarians’ decisions about whether to pursue careers in academic medicine, and results indicated that some factors may vary depending on gender or clinical discipline. Recognition of these factors may help guide academic leaders in devising strategies and programs to enhance veterinarians’ interest in clinical academic medicine careers.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To determine the effects of age on each analyte, csf variables were evaluated in healthy foals from birth through 42 days of age. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 14 clinically normal, naturally delivered cross-bred foals and was analyzed for glucose, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and total protein concentrations, total and differential wbc counts, rbc count, and lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and creatine kinase activities. Samples were collected in 3 foals < 48 hours old, and at 11 to 14 days of age in 4 foals, 21 to 22 days of age in 3 foals, and 31 to 42 days of age in 4 foals. Each foal was tested only once, to avoid any effects of csf sample collection on subsequent analysis. Regression analysis confirmed age-related effects on csf glucose, protein, and magnesium concentrations, but did not indicate an effect of age on csf sodium and potassium concentrations or cell counts. Results indicate that csf glucose concentration decreases with age; foals < 2 days old had the highest csf glucose values, 98.8 ± 12.0 mg/dl (mean ± 1 sd). In foals 10 to 14 days old, csf glucose concentration was 67.3 ± 12.0 mg/dl, was 65.3 ± 4.5 mg/dl in foals 21 to 22 days old, was 70.0 ± 5.4 mg/dl in foals 31 to 42 days old, and was 51.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl in adults. Protein values in csf also decreased with age: 109.0 ± 9.7 mg/dl in foals <2 days old, 81.0 ± 22.8 mg/dl in foals 10 to 14 days old, 60.5 ± 22.4 mg/dl in foals 21 to 22 days old, and 58.5 ± 17.0 mg/dl in foals 31 to 42 days old. The csf protein concentration was 60.3 ± 10.8 mg/dl in adult horses. Magnesium concentration in csf increased slightly with age, then decreased after 22 days of life. In foals < 2 days old, the value was 2.43 ± 0.16 mg/dl. Values in older foals and horses were: 2.51 ± 0.08 mg/dl in foals 10 to 14 days old, 2.65 ± 0.05 mg/dl in 21- to 22-day-old foals, 2.55 ± 0.05 mg/dl in 31- to 42-day-old foals, and 2.35 ± 0.09 mg/dl in adult horses.

Mean csf sodium and potassium concentrations were 151.7 ± 3.7 mmol/L and 3.14 ± 0.54 mmol/L, respectively, for all ages. There was no effect of age on these analytes. Values for csf enzymes were considered invalid for the assay technique used and were not further analyzed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify factors that individuals in clinical residency training programs consider when making a choice for or against a career in academic clinical medicine.

SAMPLE

207 veterinarians in clinical residency programs.

PROCEDURES

An online survey was distributed to 1,053 veterinarians participating in clinical residency training programs overseen by organizations recognized by the AVMA American Board of Veterinary Specialties. Results were compiled and decision factors were analyzed by means of principal component analysis to identify latent factors from the set of survey items. These factors were then used to construct a decision tree to predict respondents’ choice of whether to enter academic medicine or private clinical practice.

RESULTS

207 (20%) responses were analyzed. Ninety-three of 194 (48%) respondents reported a desire to pursue a career in academic medicine, and 101 (52%) reported a desire to pursue a career in private clinical practice. Principal component analysis identified 14 items clustered on research, clinical teaching, classroom teaching, and clinical practice. A decision tree was constructed that resulted in an overall accuracy of 82% in predicting a resident's career choice of academic medicine versus private clinical practice. The construct of professional benefits had a negative effect on desiring a career in academic medicine, whereas the construct of professional priorities and having had a positive residency training experience had a positive effect on desiring a career in academic medicine.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Understanding factors that attract and encourage residents who might have an aptitude and interest in academic medicine holds important implications for addressing the shortage of veterinarians entering academic medicine.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the perceptions of training, self-efficacy, and mentoring among veterinary clinical specialty trainees on the basis of their career interest.

SAMPLE

207 veterinarians who were either in a residency training program or had recently (within 2 years) completed one in a specialty recognized by the American Board of Veterinary Specialties.

PROCEDURES

An online survey was used to collect data about the respondents' perceived preparedness for an academic career, training emphasis, and mentoring received during training and demographic information. Results were compiled and compared by professional career interest (ie, academic medicine or private practice) and gender.

RESULTS

Included respondents represented 20% (207/1,053) of those invited. Preferred career choice was academic medicine for 48% (93/194) of respondents and private clinical practice for 52% (101/194) and did not differ by gender. Respondents perceived their likelihood of success in an academic career as high, and these perceptions did not differ by gender or preferred career choice. Mean self-efficacy scores for teaching were high among all respondents for most but not all listed teaching skills and did not differ by gender or preferred career interest. Mean self-efficacy scores were low for formulating research hypotheses and designing studies. Perceptions of training emphasis indicated strong mentoring in the areas of clinical practice and teaching with less mentoring and training emphasis in multiple areas of research and academic activity.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Lower self-efficacy of veterinary clinical specialty trainees in aspects of academic career appeared to be related to training emphasis and mentoring. Enhancement of emphasis on the identified areas of weakness may improve the interest and success of trainees in an academic career.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The csf creatine kinase (ck) activity was determined in 70 csf samples from 69 horses with cns disease. Abnormal values (≥ 1 IU/L) were determined from 32 csf samples, and normal values (<1 IU/L) were found in 38 samples. Increased ck activity was most frequently associated with a diagnosis of equine protozoal myelitis; ck activity was not increased in 11 horses with cervical compressive myelopathy. Other diagnoses, in which csf ck activity was increased included trauma (n = 1), idiopathic epilepsy (n = 2), botulism (n = 2), articular facet fracture (n = 1), intervertebral disk protrusion (n = 1), and toxemia (n = 1).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical, clinical pathology, and outcome variables between geriatric and nongeriatric horses.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—690 horses (345 horses ≥ 20 years old and 345 horses > 1 and < 20 years old) examined at a referral hospital.

Procedures—Medical records were examined, and data collected included horse description, diagnosis, outcome, and CBC and serum biochemical analysis results. Cases were horses ≥ 20 years old, and controls were horses > 1 and < 20 years old.

Results—Mean ± SD age was 23.9 ± 4.6 years for cases and 9.2 ± 3.6 years for controls. Arabian and pony breeds were significantly overrepresented in the geriatric group, compared with the control group. Diagnoses related to the digestive system, musculoskeletal system, and respiratory system were most common in this hospital population overall (cases and controls). Colic was the most common health problem overall. Digestive system disorders were significantly more prevalent among cases. Short-term survival rates for most categories of colic were no different for cases than for controls, with the exception of the category idiopathic colic. Considering all conditions, cases were significantly more likely to be nonsurvivors than were controls. Minor differences in serum biochemical results were found in some disease subcategories. Geriatric horses with colic were not more commonly euthanized than were adult nongeriatric horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that in this population of horses in a referral hospital, age was associated with the prevalence of specific disease conditions. Few differences between cases and controls were found in serum biochemical values.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine normal CSF electrophoresis patterns in horses, and to determine whether the electrophoretic scans from horses with cervical compression differ from those of neurologically normal horses.

Animals

32 horses assigned to 1 of 2 groups: neurologically normal (n = 18) or cervical compression (n = 14).

Procedure

CSF was collected from 18 neurologically normal horses referred to the Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center, and protein electrophoresis was performed to describe the normal equine CSF electrophoretogram. Results of CSF electrophoresis from 14 horses with cervical compression were then compared with results for the neurologically normal horses.

Results

Horses with cervical compression had decreased β-globulin fraction, and 1 or 2 prominent post-β2 peak(s). When the presence of post-β peaks was used as a diagnostic criterion for cervical compression, the test had sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 81.8%, The positive and negative predictive values were 83.3 and 69.2%, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Implications

Electrophoresis of CSF may be a useful diagnostic aid in evaluation of horses with neurologic disease. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:939–941)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with outcome (ie, survival and return to function) following treatment of horses with septic tenosynovitis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—51 horses with septic tenosynovitis.

Procedures—Information was obtained from medical records and through follow-up conversations with owners. Factors analyzed for an association with outcome included affected limb, etiology, duration of clinical signs prior to examination, presence of complications, primary treatment, secondary treatments, number of surgical procedures, and hospitalization time.

Results—Concurrent complications were identified in 41 (80%) horses. The primary treatment consisted of through-and-through lavage in 26 (51%) horses, tenoscopy in 20 (39%), and tenosynoviotomy combined with lavage in 5 (10%). Forty (78%) horses were discharged, and 37 (73%) survived at least 1 year after surgery; 21 of the 37 (57%) returned to their previous or a higher level of performance. Percentages of horses that survived 1 year after discharge and percentages that returned to their intended use did not vary significantly among treatments. Horses with tendon rupture or sepsis of an adjacent joint were significantly less likely to survive. Horses with tendon injury or pannus were significantly less likely to return to their intended use.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that various factors were associated with outcome in horses with septic tenosynovitis. However, surgical technique was not found to be associated with survival rate or rate of return to intended use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association