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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Corticocancellous bone graft was obtained from the caudoventral portion of the mandible of 8 dogs. The recipient site was an alveolar jugal and alveolar defect from vital root amputation of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary fourth premolar. Anatomic observations of 20 canine cadavers indicated that guidelines for harvesting bone from the caudoventral portion of the mandible of dogs were the mesial aspect of the masseteric fossa, the distal aspect of the roots of the first mandibular molar, and the ventral aspect of the mandibular canal. The mean weight of corticocancellous bone harvested was 0.4 ± 0.1 g. Harvested corticocancellous bone was adequate to fill recipient sites measuring a mean volume of 105.0 ± 28.5 mm3. Histologic evaluation of the recipient site revealed progressive osseous integration of the bone-graft site during a mean follow-up period of 3.5 ± 1.9 months. There was normal bone healing of the donor site without adverse effects on the mandibular molars or neurovascular structures of the mandibular canal. Vital amputation sites receiving silver amalgam had evidence of plasmacytic/lymphocytic inflammation associated with residual silver amalgam in the bone-graft area. The caudoventral portion of the mandible may be used as a donor site for autogenous corticocancellous bone in periodontal surgery of dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

An axial pattern flap that was based on the sternocleidomastoideus branches of the caudal auricular artery and vein was developed. Control flaps, which included ligation and division of the caudal auricular artery and vein, were similarly developed on the contralateral aspect of the neck. Mean survival of caudal auricular artery axial pattern flaps (85.2%), compared with control flaps (63.9%), was significantly different (P < 0.05). On the basis of results of this study, an axial pattern flap based on the sternocleidomastoideus branches of the caudal auricular artery and vein may be a source of skin for reconstructive procedures of the head and neck.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Tooth surface and interradicular area (furcation) measurements were determined for 20 fourth maxillary premolar teeth obtained randomly from canine cadavers. The palatal furcation entrance had a mean width of 1.2 ± 0.1 mm. The coronal roof of the palatal furcation was located at the cementoenamel junction (cej). The buccal furcation entrance had a mean width of 0.9 ± 0.2 mm. The horizontal attachment area between the cej and the coronal roof of the buccal furcation was 1.3 ± 0.3 mm. The mesial furcation entrance had a mean width of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The horizontal attachment area between the cej and the coronal roof of the mesial furcation entrance was 1.7 ± 0.3 mm. The mean coefficient of variation for variables measured was 10.3%. Tooth size did not have a significant effect on furcation entrance measurement. All teeth had a fluted area between the cej and mesial furcation, a concavity coronal to the furcation area, a distal concavity of the mesial root trunk between the mesiopalatal and mesiobuccal roots, and a mesial furcation concavity of the distal root extending apically for a mean distance of 60% of the distal root length. The complexity of furcation entrance anatomy may be a factor in the manifestation of periodontal disease involving the furcation of the fourth maxillary premolar in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Bilateral midbody hemimandibular osteotomies were performed between premolars 3 and 4 in 18 adult dogs. Hemimandibles were repaired by use of monocortically applied bone plates (n = 6), an interdental fixator composed of an Erich arch bar and acrylic (n = 6), or a type I external skeletal fixator (n = 6). At the immediate postoperative evaluation, hemimandibles stabilized with interdental fixators had an osteotomy gap distance (mean ± SEM, 1.6 ± 0.2 mm) that was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than for hemimandibles stabilized with external skeletal fixators (1.2 ± 0.3 mm). Osteotomy gap distance of hemimandibles stabilized with external skeletal fixators (1.5 ± 0.2 mm) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at weeks 4 (1.1 ± 0.2 mm) and 8 (0.8 ± 0.3 mm) after surgery than the osteotomy gap distance of hemimandibles stabilized by application of bone plates. By week 16, significant differences in osteotomy gap distance were not detected between groups. Immediately after surgery, mandibular alignment measurements were not significantly different for dogs with bone plates (0.3 ± 0.1 mm), interdental fixators (0.3 ± 0.1 mm), and external skeletal fixators (0.9 ± 0.5 mm). Mandibular alignment scores were not significantly different between treatment groups during the remaining postoperative period. Occlusal measurements were not significantly different between evaluations performed before surgery and 16 weeks after surgery, regardless of treatment group. Radiographic evidence of healing in hemimandibles stabilized with external skeletal fixators was significantly (P < 0.05) less at 4 and 8 weeks, compared with hemimandibles stabilized with bone plates and interdental fixators; however, radiographic evidence of bone healing was not significantly different between fixation groups at 16 weeks. Radiographic evidence of implant loosening was seen in 1 of 12 (8%) hemimandibles receiving bone plates, 1 of 12 (8%) hemimandibles receiving interdental fixators, and 4 of 12 (33%) hemimandibles receiving external skeletal fixators. Periosteotomy callus was radiographically evident in 11 of 18 (61%) hemimandibles at 4 and 8 weeks only, but significant differences in periosteotomy callus surface area were not detected between groups. Of 24 hemimandibles stabilized with interdental and external skeletal fixators, 22 (92%) had callus formation that progressively matured into trabecular bone by 16 weeks. At 4 weeks, bone healing characterization scores of hemimandibles stabilized with bone plates were significantly (P < 0.05) less than (ie, had greater stability) bone healing characterization scores of hemimandibles stabilized with interdental and external skeletal fixators, but at 8 and 16 weeks, bone healing characterization scores between treatment groups were not significantly different. Histopathologic or radiographic evaluation did not reveal evidence of pulp disease or pathologic changes of teeth, which would have been associated with root resection at the osteotomy site, application of acrylic to the crown surface, or placement of external fixator pins and cortical screws. On the basis of the fact that the dogs appeared clinically normal and were able to masticate, analgesics were discontinued by 24 hours after surgery. Analysis of data indicated that an interdental fixator composed of an Erich arch bar and acrylic may be a viable method for fracture repair of mandibles.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association