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- Author or Editor: Martha M. Larson x
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Objective—To characterize the computed tomographic (CT) and cross-sectional anatomic features of myofascial compartments and soft tissue spaces in the manus of cadavers of dogs without forelimb disease.
Animals—33 cadavers of adult medium- to large-breed dogs without forelimb disease.
Procedures—Forelimbs were removed from the cadavers within 4 hours after euthanasia or within 6 hours after thawing from initial freezing. Specimens were then frozen for variable periods and thawed for approximately 16 hours before use. Each manus of 60 forelimbs underwent CT before and after injection of a radiopaque, blue-staining contrast medium into locations where soft tissue spaces and myofascial compartments were predicted (on the basis of pilot study data [6 forelimbs]). Two veterinary radiologists reviewed CT images and recorded the presence or absence of a discrete space or compartment at each injection site. Each manus was subsequently dissected or sectioned transversely. Locations of blue-staining contrast medium accumulation were compared with locations of contrast enhancement in CT images. Anatomic structures within each soft tissue space or myofascial compartment were described.
Results—13 soft tissue spaces and 5 myofascial compartments were identified in the manus. Three myofascial structures that were examined were determined not to be compartments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of soft tissue spaces and myofascial compartments are used to map the likely spread of disease in the hands and feet of humans. Thus, understanding the locations and extent of similar structures in the canine manus may improve the effectiveness of surgical interventions in dogs with injury or inflammation of this region of the forelimb.
Case Description—An 8-month-old Shetland Sheepdog was evaluated because of the sudden onset of signs of neck pain, collapse, and inability to rise. A cursory diet history indicated that the dog had been fed a raw meat–based diet.
Clinical Findings—Initial evaluation of the dog revealed small physical stature, thin body condition, and signs of cranial cervical myelopathy. Radiographically, diffuse osteopenia of all skeletal regions was identified; polyostotic deformities associated with fracture remodeling were observed in weight-bearing bones, along with an apparent floating dental arcade. Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were detected via serum biochemical analyses. The dog's diet was imbalanced in macronutrients and macrominerals.
Treatment and Outcome—The dog received supportive care and treatment of medical complications; neurologic abnormalities improved rapidly without intervention. Dietary changes were implemented during hospitalization, and a long-term feeding regimen was established. Following discharge from the hospital, exercise restriction was continued at home. Serial follow-up evaluations, including quantitative bone density measurements, revealed that dietary changes were effective. After 7 months, the dog was clinically normal.
Clinical Relevance—In the dog of this report, vitamin D–dependent rickets type I and suspected nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism developed following intake of a nutritionally incomplete and unbalanced diet. The raw meat–based, home-prepared diet fed to the dog was not feed-trial tested for any life stage by the Association of American Feed Control Officials, and its gross nutrient imbalance induced severe metabolic, orthopedic, and neurologic abnormalities. Inadvertent malnutrition can be avoided through proper diet assessment and by matching nutrient profiles with patients' nutritional needs.
Objective—To determine whether the pattern of extension of modeled infection from the interdigital web spaces in dogs is predictable and whether the distribution differs among initial injury sites.
Sample Population—Thawed frozen forelimbs from 23 cadavers of previously healthy adult medium- to large-breed dogs.
Procedures—The manus of each forelimb was evaluated by use of computed tomography (CT) before and after injection of radiopaque blue-staining contrast medium into the interdigital web spaces. Two veterinary radiologists reviewed the CT images and recorded the extent of contrast medium from each site. Each manus was dissected or sectioned transversely after imaging, and the extent of contrast medium accumulation was recorded and compared with locations of CT contrast enhancement. The Fisher exact test was performed to determine whether the pattern of contrast medium extension differed by injection site.
Results—Injections made in the interdigital web spaces of the canine manus led to unique and predictable patterns of extension into the surrounding soft tissues. That pattern of extension primarily involved the soft tissues of the digits.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In humans, knowledge of common extension patterns from infected soft tissue spaces is used to predict the spread of disease within the hand and develop surgical plans that will minimize patient illness. Identification of the common sites of disease spread from the interdigital web spaces in dogs may help improve surgical planning and treatment for infection in the manus.