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  • Author or Editor: Martha L. Needham x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate flow cytometric analysis for sex identification in 3 psittacine species, establish reference values for blood cell DNA content for each species, and determine effects of sample storage on DNA content.

Animals—36 orange-winged Amazon parrots, 41 budgerigars, and 39 cockatiels.

Procedure—Blood samples were stained and analyzed by use of flow cytometry to measure cellular DNA content. Samples were analyzed immediately after collection and after being stored at 4 C for 48 and 72 hours.

Results—Mean DNA content (picograms per cell) was 3.248 for Amazon parrots, 2.702 for budgerigars, and 2.946 for cockatiels; DNA concentrations in samples analyzed immediately overlapped in a male and a female Amazon parrot and among 19 cockatiels. For budgerigars, DNA overlap between sexes was not detected in samples analyzed immediately or after storage for 72 hours. Sex was identified correctly in 94.4% of Amazon parrots, 100% of budgerigars, and 51.3% of cockatiels. For both sexes, DNA content in samples analyzed immediately was significantly different from that of stored samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flow cytometric analysis was accurate for sex identification of Amazon parrots and budgerigars. Sample storage at 4 C for 48 or 72 hours caused variability in DNA content. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:847–850)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The USDA considers game bird species to include grouse, guineafowl, partridges, pigeons (squabs), quail, pheasants, ducks, geese, and wild turkey. According to USDA regulations, although these game bird species may not be hunted in the wild for the purpose of being sold for human consumption, they may be sold for food when raised in captivity. 1

In the United States, over 8 billion chickens and 220 million domestic turkeys are sold for human food consumption on an annual basis. 2 In comparison, 37 million quail, 4 million chukars, 10 million pheasants, and 1 million mallard ducks are reportedly sold

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association