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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Intervertebral disk space widths were measured on lateral radiographs of 73 anesthetized dogs. Weight was found to have a significant (P < 0.01) effect on disk space width. Using weight-adjusted disk space width measurements for all subsequent studies, older (7- to 16-year-old) dogs and males had consistently, but not significantly, wider, disk spaces than did alternative groups. Cervical and lumbar intervertebral disk spaces tended to be wider than those in the caudal thoracic region. The widest cervical intervertebral disk spaces were C4-5 and C5-6 and the narrowest was C2-3. In the lumbar region, L2-3 was the widest disk space and L4-5 was the narrowest. Dachshunds generally had greater mean intervertebral disk space width than did other breeds of dogs.

Cervical (n = 6 dogs) and thoracolumbar (n = 6 dogs) disk fenestration resulted in narrow intervertebral disk spaces, regardless of breed. When a ventral approach was used in thoracolumbar fenestration, the mean intervertebral disk space was narrower than that resulting from use of a dorsolateral approach.

Spondylosis was found radiographically 1 to 4 years after intervertebral disk fenestration in 3 of 6 dogs that had cervical fenestrations and in 5 of 6 dogs that underwent thoracolumbar fenestration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a low or high sodium (Na) diet with or without furosemide administration on plasma electrolyte concentrations and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in healthy dogs.

Animals—20 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allotted to 4 groups of 5 dogs each as follows: dogs fed a low Na diet (0.08% Na and 0.8% chloride [Cl] on a dry matter [DM] basis); dogs fed a low Na diet with added NaCl (1.0% Na and 2.2% Cl on a DM basis); dogs fed a low Na diet and treated with furosemide (2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h); and dogs fed a low Na diet with added NaCl and treated with furosemide. Plasma electrolyte concentrations were measured on days 0, 21, and 35. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were analyzed by use of radioimmunoassays on days 0, 21, 35, and 53.

Results—Furosemide treatment significantly decreased plasma Cl concentration and significantly increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration. Dogs fed a low Na diet had significantly higher plasma renin activities and plasma aldosterone concentrations. A significant interaction between a low Na diet and furosemide administration resulted in the lowest plasma Cl concentrations, highest plasma renin activities, and highest plasma aldosterone concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, feeding a low Na diet and administering furosemide resulted in an additive effect on plasma Cl concentration, renin activity, and aldosterone concentration, which may be an important consideration for treating dogs with cardiac disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1793–1796)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Corticocancellous bone graft was obtained from the caudoventral portion of the mandible of 8 dogs. The recipient site was an alveolar jugal and alveolar defect from vital root amputation of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary fourth premolar. Anatomic observations of 20 canine cadavers indicated that guidelines for harvesting bone from the caudoventral portion of the mandible of dogs were the mesial aspect of the masseteric fossa, the distal aspect of the roots of the first mandibular molar, and the ventral aspect of the mandibular canal. The mean weight of corticocancellous bone harvested was 0.4 ± 0.1 g. Harvested corticocancellous bone was adequate to fill recipient sites measuring a mean volume of 105.0 ± 28.5 mm3. Histologic evaluation of the recipient site revealed progressive osseous integration of the bone-graft site during a mean follow-up period of 3.5 ± 1.9 months. There was normal bone healing of the donor site without adverse effects on the mandibular molars or neurovascular structures of the mandibular canal. Vital amputation sites receiving silver amalgam had evidence of plasmacytic/lymphocytic inflammation associated with residual silver amalgam in the bone-graft area. The caudoventral portion of the mandible may be used as a donor site for autogenous corticocancellous bone in periodontal surgery of dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

An axial pattern flap that was based on the sternocleidomastoideus branches of the caudal auricular artery and vein was developed. Control flaps, which included ligation and division of the caudal auricular artery and vein, were similarly developed on the contralateral aspect of the neck. Mean survival of caudal auricular artery axial pattern flaps (85.2%), compared with control flaps (63.9%), was significantly different (P < 0.05). On the basis of results of this study, an axial pattern flap based on the sternocleidomastoideus branches of the caudal auricular artery and vein may be a source of skin for reconstructive procedures of the head and neck.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Tooth surface and interradicular area (furcation) measurements were determined for 20 fourth maxillary premolar teeth obtained randomly from canine cadavers. The palatal furcation entrance had a mean width of 1.2 ± 0.1 mm. The coronal roof of the palatal furcation was located at the cementoenamel junction (cej). The buccal furcation entrance had a mean width of 0.9 ± 0.2 mm. The horizontal attachment area between the cej and the coronal roof of the buccal furcation was 1.3 ± 0.3 mm. The mesial furcation entrance had a mean width of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The horizontal attachment area between the cej and the coronal roof of the mesial furcation entrance was 1.7 ± 0.3 mm. The mean coefficient of variation for variables measured was 10.3%. Tooth size did not have a significant effect on furcation entrance measurement. All teeth had a fluted area between the cej and mesial furcation, a concavity coronal to the furcation area, a distal concavity of the mesial root trunk between the mesiopalatal and mesiobuccal roots, and a mesial furcation concavity of the distal root extending apically for a mean distance of 60% of the distal root length. The complexity of furcation entrance anatomy may be a factor in the manifestation of periodontal disease involving the furcation of the fourth maxillary premolar in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association