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  • Author or Editor: Martín Santos x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the local analgesic effect of ketamine in a palmar digital nerve block at the base of the proximal sesamoid (abaxial sesamoid block) in horses.

Animals—36 mature healthy Andalusian horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 9 horses each and received an abaxial sesamoid block in a randomly chosen forelimb with 1 of the following: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, 1% ketamine solution, 2% ketamine solution, or 3% ketamine solution. To determine analgesia, the radiant heat lamp-hoof withdrawal model was used as a noxious thermal stimulus. Before each nerve block, baseline hoof withdrawal reflex latency (HWRL, time between lamp illumination and withdrawal of the hoof) was determined; after the nerve block, local analgesic effects were determined by measuring HWRL at 2 and 5 minutes after injection and then every 5 minutes for a total period of 1 hour.

Results—Significant differences in HWRL were found between baseline values and values at 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with ketamine. Significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 10 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 1 or 2% ketamine solution. Similarly, significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 3% ketamine solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abaxial sesamoid block with ketamine ensures adequate analgesia in horses with an onset of action of 2 minutes and a maximal duration of action of 15 minutes. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:475–478)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical variables, regional concentrations, and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in the synovial fluid of distal forelimb joints of horses after IV regional limb perfusion.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedure—Vancomycin was administered via IV regional limb perfusion to the distal portion of the forelimbs of anesthetized horses. Drug (300 mg of vancomycin hydrochloride in 60 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) was infused into 1 forelimb, whereas the contralateral limb served as a control and was perfused with 60 mL of saline solution. Solutions were injected into the lateral digital vein after digital exsanguination. Synovial fluid from the metacarpophalangeal (MTCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints and systemic blood were collected prior to perfusion and 15, 30, 45, 65, and 90 minutes after initiation of the infusion. Synovial fluid from the MTCP joint and blood were also obtained at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after infusion. Plasma urea and creatinine concentrations, degree of lameness, and certain clinical variables involving the MTCP joint and infusion site were assessed for 7 days. Results were compared between the vancomycin treatment and control groups.

Results—No complications or significant differences in renal function, lameness, or clinical variables were observed between groups. Vancomycin concentrations exceeded 4 µg/mL in MTCP joints for approximately 20 hours. Higher concentrations were reached in DIP joints than in MTCP joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV regional limb perfusion with 300 mg of vancomycin as a 0.5% solution was safe and may be useful in horses as treatment for distal limb infections. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2107–2113)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research