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Summary

Cutaneous arterial blood supply to the tail was evaluated in 12 dogs. Subtraction radiography of internal iliac artery and distal aorta angiography in 3 of these dogs was used to determine arterial blood supply to the tail from the median sacral and lateral caudal arteries. Dissection of the tail in 8 canine cadavers revealed bilateral subcutaneous location of lateral caudal arteries following tail amputation. An axial pattern flap based on the lateral caudal arteries contributed to the reconstruction of a large caudodorsal cutaneous defect in a dog. An axial pattern flap based on the lateral caudal arteries following tail amputation may be indicated to aid reconstruction of large caudodorsal cutaneous defects of the trunk in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Nineteen axial pattern skin flaps were used in 16 dogs and cats to provide skin for repair of extensive cutaneous defects. Retrospective evaluation of medical records was used to determine percentage flap survival, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome of axial pattern skin flaps. The most common indication for use of axial pattern flaps was to augment wound closure following tumor resection (n = 7). Other indications included trauma (n = 5), chronic nonhealing wounds (n = 4), urine-induced cellulitis (n = 1), idiopathic dermal necrosis (n = 1), and chronic lymphoplasmocytic dermatitis (n = 1). Mean flap survival (± sd) was 96% (± 8). Postoperative complications included wound drainage (n = 15), partial dehiscence of the sutured flap (n = 7), distal flap necrosis (n = 6), infection (n = 3), edema (n = 3), and seroma formation (n = 2). After a median follow-up time of 5 months, evaluation of animals indicated that surgery provided successful wound reconstruction with good cosmetic results. Reconstruction of large cutaneous defects is facilitated by axial pattern flap application regardless of cause of wound. Postoperative complications are common but amenable to standard wound management techniques such as drain placement and surgical debridement of devitalized distal flap skin.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine possible diet aversion and lipid and lipoprotein alterations in cats fed diets containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs).

Animals—19 clinically normal adult female cats.

Procedures—Cats were assigned to 2 groups (low MCT diet [n = 10] and high MCT diet [9]) and fed the diets for 9 weeks according to metabolic body weight (100 kcal of metabolizable energy [ME] × kg−0.67/d). Daily consumption records and weekly body weight and body condition score (BCS) were used to adjust amounts fed and calculate daily ME factors for each cat to maintain ideal BCS. Blood samples were obtained after withholding food on days 0, 14, 28, and 56 for measurement of plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations and lipoprotein-cholesterol distributions. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests were performed.

Results—No diet differences were found for food consumption, body weight, BCS, and ME factors. A significant increase in plasma triglyceride concentration was detected for the high MCT diet; however, values were within the reference ranges. No diet effects were observed for total cholesterol concentrations or lipoprotein-cholesterol distributions, although increases over time were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inclusion of MCT in diets of cats did not result in feed refusal and had minimal effects on lipid metabolism. Such diets may be useful for both clinically normal cats and cats with metabolic disorders. The MCT oils are an example of a bioactive dietary lipid that may benefit feline metabolism and can serve as a useful functional food ingredient for cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether dietary fatty acids affect indicators of insulin sensitivity, plasma insulin and lipid concentrations, and lipid accumulation in muscle cells in lean and obese cats.

Animals—28 neutered adult cats.

Procedure—IV glucose tolerance tests and magnetic resonance imaging were performed before (lean phase) and after 21 weeks of ad libitum intake of either a diet high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs; n = 14) or high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs; 14).

Results—Compared with the lean phase, ad libitum food intake resulted in increased weight, body mass index, girth, and percentage fat in both groups. Baseline plasma glucose or insulin concentrations and glucose area under the curve (AUC) were unaffected by diet. Insulin AUC values for obese and lean cats fed 3-PUFAs did not differ, but values were higher in obese cats fed SFAs, compared with values for lean cats fed SFAs and obese cats fed 3-PUFAs. Nineteen cats that became glucose intolerant when obese had altered insulin secretion and decreased glucose clearance when lean. Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were unaffected by diet. Ad libitum intake of either diet resulted in an increase in both intra- and extramyocellular lipid. Obese cats fed SFAs had higher glycosylated hemoglobin concentration than obese cats fed 3-PUFAs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In obese cats, a diet high in 3-PUFAs appeared to improve long-term glucose control and decrease plasma insulin concentration. Obesity resulted in intra- and extramyocellular lipid accumulations (regardless of diet) that likely modulate insulin sensitivity. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1090–1099)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (bop), a synthetic implant, were evaluated. Bilateral oval cortical defects (1 × 2 cm) were made in the lateral subtrochanteric area of the proximal portion of the femur in 16 dogs that later were treated with bop fiber (n = 16) or autogenous cancellous bone (n = 11), or were not treated (n = 5). The bop block was attached extraperiosteally to the proximal portion of the humerus in 6 dogs. Radiographic assessment of surgery sites was performed at 4-week intervals, and histologic evaluation was performed at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery. Radiographic signs of bone healing were not observed in defects treated with bop fiber. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated had radiographic signs of progressive bone ingrowth. Radiographic evidence of periosteal new bone formation near control and bop-treated defects was observed 4 weeks after surgery; increased periosteal reaction was associated with bop fiber. This new bone had resorbed by week 24, except bone adjacent to bop fiber, where continued periosteal reaction was apparent. Histologic evidence of bone formation was observed extending to, but not incorporating, bop fibers. The bop fibers became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and fibrovascular connective tissue infiltrated between and into bop fibers, but minimal bone formation incorporated the bop material during the follow-up period. During that time, active periosteal new bone formation was evident adjacent to the bop fibers. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated healed by ingrowth of cancellous bone during the first 12 weeks after surgery and by reformation of the lateral cortical wall by week 24. The bop blocks became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, but connective tissue or bone ingrowth into bop blocks was not observed. Results indicate that bop is not osteoconductive within a 6-month time frame when used in subtrochanteric femoral defects or when placed extraperiosteally on the proximal portion of the humerus of clinically normal dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association