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OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and adverse effects after voriconazole administration to cats and identify an oral dose of voriconazole for cats that maintains plasma drug concentrations within a safe and effective range.

ANIMALS 6 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES Voriconazole (1 mg/kg, IV) was administered to each cat (phase 1). Serial plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured for 24 hours after administration. Voriconazole suspension or tablets were administered orally at 4, 5, or 6 mg/kg (phase 2). Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured for 24 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetics of tablet and suspension preparations was compared. Finally, an induction dose of 25 mg/cat (4.1 to 5.4 mg/kg, tablet formulation), PO, was administered followed by 12.5 mg/cat (2.05 to 2.7 mg/kg), PO, every 48 hours for 14 days (phase 3). Plasma voriconazole concentration was measured on days 2, 4, 8, and 15.

RESULTS Voriconazole half-life after IV administration was approximately 12 hours. Maximal plasma concentration was reached within 60 minutes after oral administration. A dose of 4 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations within the target range (1 to 4 μg/mL). Adverse effects included hypersalivation and miosis. During long-term administration, plasma concentrations remained in the target range but increased, which suggested drug accumulation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Voriconazole had excellent oral bioavailability and a long half-life in cats. Oral administration of a dose of 12.5 mg/cat every 72 hours should be investigated. Miosis occurred when plasma concentrations reached the high end of the target range. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring should be considered to minimize adverse effects.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine serum canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) antibody titers in healthy dogs brought to a veterinary hospital for revaccination.


Case series.


122 dogs.


Serum antibody titers were measured by means of hemagglutination inhibition (CPV titers) or serum neutralization (CDV titers) at the time dogs were brought to the hospital for revaccination. All dogs had been vaccinated between 271 and 1,665 days previously. Dogs were grouped by age, breed (purebred vs mixed breed), sex, and weight to determine whether these factors were associated with antibody titers. Serum CPV titers ≥ 1:80 and serum CDV titers ≥ 1:96 were considered protective.


Breed, sex, and weight were not significantly associated with serum CPV and CDV titers. Age was significantly associated with CPV titer, with younger dogs having higher titers, but was not associated with CDV titer. Thirty-three of 122 (27%; 95% confidence interval, 19.0 to 34.9%) dogs had a less-than-protective CPV titer. Twenty-five of 117 (21%; 95% confidence interval, 13.6 to 28.4%) dogs had a less-than-protective CDV titer.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that, on the basis of serum antibody titers, the current practice of annual revaccination of dogs against CPV and CDV infection should be maintained. Measurement of antibody titers to determine whether revaccination is truly needed would seem justifiable in those dogs that have previously had an adverse reaction to vaccination. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:72-75)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effect of palpation per rectum (PPR) by use of 1 or 2 fetal membrane slips (FMSs) for pregnancy diagnosis during early gestation on pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.

Design—Controlled, randomized block design.

Animals—928 healthy pregnant cattle.

Procedures—All cattle were determined to be pregnant by use of transrectal ultrasonography at approximately day 31 after estrus and randomly allocated into 2 groups (control group [n = 476 cows] and palpation group [452]). The control group was not subjected to pregnancy diagnosis via PPR. The palpation group was subdivided into 2 groups (PPR FMS 1 [n = 230 cows] and PPR FMS 2 [222]), which involved PPR and pregnancy diagnosis via 1 or 2 FMSs, respectively, during the same examination, which was performed by 1 veterinarian between days 34 and 43 after estrus. All cattle were reevaluated by use of transrectal ultrasonography on days 45 and 60 to determine viability of the embryo and fetus, respectively.

Results—Overall pregnancy loss between days 31 and 60 was 14.1%. Pregnancy loss for the control, PPR FMS 1, and PPR FMS 2 groups from days 31 to 60 was 14.5%, 12.6%, and 14.9%, respectively. Embryonic pregnancy loss for the control, PPR FMS 1, and PPR FMS 2 groups was 12.4%, 9.1%, and 9.5%, respectively. Fetal pregnancy loss for the same groups was 2.4%, 3.8%, and 5.9%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pregnancy diagnosis via 1 or 2 FMSs performed during PPR in early gestation did not increase pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine the benefits that were associated with pregnancy testing by use of transrectal palpation during the period 30 to 65 days after unsuccessful insemination of dairy cows.


Nonconcurrent, cohort study.


Cows in 15 dairy herds in the United States and Canada.


Reproductive records of cows (n = 713) that did not calve within 294 days of first-service insemination and that had been evaluated for pregnancy 30 to 65 days after first-service insemination were examined. Records were analyzed to determine the day of parturition or date of culling and to determine if the probability of a cow being culled or the interval to parturition was related to the number of days after insemination that pregnancy testing was performed.


For cows that calved more than 294 days after first-service insemination, the interval from first-service insemination until parturition was associated significantly with herd, season, and treatment on the day of pregnancy testing with prostaglandin F or one of its analogues. Cows treated with prostaglandin F on the day of pregnancy testing were less likely to be culled than nontreated cows. For cows pregnancy tested 30 to 65 days after insemination, each additional day after day 30 before pregnancy testing was performed resulted in an increase of 1.09 days in the interval until parturition.

Clinical Implications—

Pregnancy testing by means of transrectal palpation as soon as possible after day 30 after insemination can result in shorter calving intervals.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association