Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of
cytologic examination used in a clinical setting.
Animals—216 dogs, 44 cats, 4 horses, 2 ferrets, 1
llama, 1 rat, and 1 mouse.
Procedure—Records were reviewed of cases in
which a cytologic diagnosis was followed by a surgical
biopsy or postmortem examination within 3 days
with subsequent histopathologic diagnosis.
Diagnoses were compared for agreement at various
levels, including complete agreement, partial agreement,
no agreement, or no comparison possible
because of insufficient or incorrect cytologic specimen.
Levels of agreement were compared for different
categories of lesions, including neoplastic, inflammatory,
dysplastic-hyperplastic-other, and normal tissue.
Additionally, levels of agreement for neoplastic
lesions were categorized with regard to cell type,
degree of malignancy, and location. Sensitivity and
specificity of cytologic examination were calculated.
Results—At the level of general agreement (complete
and partial agreement), the sensitivity of cytologic
examination ranged from 33.3 to 66.1%,
depending on the location of the lesion. Cytologic
examination was most accurate when used to diagnose
cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and least
accurate for diagnosis of liver lesions. Cytologic
examination was most effective in diagnosis of neoplastic
disease and least effective in diagnosis of dysplastic
or hyperplastic conditions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cytologic
examination is a valuable diagnostic tool, although our
results indicated lower accuracy than previously
reported. False-negative results (missing a diagnosis)
were far more common than false-positive results
(categorizing a healthy animal as diseased); therefore,
if the clinical index of suspicion is high, cytologic
examination should be repeated or another technique
should be selected to rule out the suspected condition.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:964–967)
Objective—To determine the effects of intratumoral injection of a hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate on local and systemic platinum concentrations and systemic toxicosis.
Animals—5 dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).
Procedures—For each dog, approximately 1.5 mL of hyaluronan nanocarrier conjugated with 20 mg of cisplatin was injected into an external STS. Blood samples were collected immediately before (0 hours) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for pharmacokinetic analyses. Urine samples were obtained at 0 and at 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for urinalysis. Each treated STS and its sentinel lymph nodes were surgically removed 96 hours after the hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum concentrations in blood samples, tumors, and lymph nodes.
Results—No tissue reactions were detected 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Mean ± SD area under the curve, peak concentration, and terminal half-life for unbound (plasma) and total (serum) platinum were 774.6 ± 221.1 ng•h/mL and 3,562.1 ± 2,031.1 ng•h/mL, 56.5 ± 20.9 ng/mL and 81.6 ± 40.4 ng/mL, and 33.6 ± 16.1 hours and 51.2 ± 29.1 hours, respectively. Platinum concentrations ranged from 3,325 to 8,229 ng/g in STSs and 130 to 6,066 ng/g in STS-associated lymph nodes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intratumoral injection of the hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate was well tolerated in treated dogs. Following intratumoral hyaluronan-cisplatin injection, platinum concentration was 1,000-fold and 100-fold greater within treated tumors and tumor-draining lymphatics, respectively, compared with that in plasma.