To determine mortality rates for dogs with severe anaphylaxis and identify potential prognostic factors.
67 dogs with suspected anaphylaxis graded as severe.
Dogs were classified on the basis of outcome as survivors and nonsurvivors. Medical records were reviewed, and data were extracted including signalment, examination findings, time to hospital admission from onset of clinical signs, CBC results, serum biochemical analysis results, coagulation testing results, and findings on abdominal ultrasonography. Initial treatment within the first 6 hours after hospital admission was recorded for analysis, specifically including the use of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, corticosteroids, antimicrobials, fresh-frozen plasma, and supplemental dextrose.
The overall mortality rate was 14.9% (10/67) for dogs with anaphylaxis graded as severe. Serum phosphorus concentration and prothrombin time (PT) were significantly higher in nonsurvivors, compared with survivors. Nonsurvivors had lower presenting body temperatures than survivors. Serum phosphorus concentration ≥ 12.0 mmol/L, hypoglycemia within 6 hours after hospital admission, high PT value, concurrently high PT and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) values > 50% above the reference range limit, and the need for supplemental dextrose were associated with death. The incidences of coagulopathy and peritoneal effusion were unexpectedly high (85.2% and 65.5% of dogs, respectively) but were not indicative of survival.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Despite the poor presenting clinical condition seen in dogs with severe anaphylaxis, the rate of survival with treatment was fairly high. Coagulopathy and the presence of peritoneal effusion were common findings in dogs with severe anaphylaxis. Serum phosphorus concentration ≥ 12.0 mmol/L, high PT value, concurrent increases of PT and PTT values > 50% above reference range limits, hypoglycemia within 6 hours after hospital admission, and the need for supplemental dextrose were associated with death.
To compare urinalysis results for canine urine samples stored in preservative-containing tubes at room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]) or refrigerated at 4°C (39.2°F) in plain glass tubes with results for the same samples immediately after collection.
Urine samples from 20 healthy dogs.
Urine samples (1/dog) were divided into 6 aliquots (3 in preservative-containing tubes and 3 in plain glass tubes). Preservative-containing tubes were stored at room temperature and plain glass tubes were refrigerated. Urinalysis was performed 0, 24, and 72 hours after collection. Results for both storage conditions were compared with results for a reference sample (the 0-hour [immediate post-collection] aliquot in a plain glass tube) by Spearman correlation analysis with pairwise tests for selected variables.
Physical variables (urine color and turbidity with and without centrifugation) for both storage conditions had high (rs = 0.7 to 0.9) or very high (rs = 0.9 to 1.0) degrees of positive correlation with reference sample results at all time points, except for color at 24 hours. Similar results were found for all biochemical variables with storage up to 72 hours. For microscopic characteristics, correlation with reference sample results ranged from low or nonsignificant to very high under both storage conditions.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that if a delay in urinalysis is expected, use of the preservative-containing tubes evaluated in this study may be a viable option for sample storage. Further research is warranted to assess direct comparability of results to those of freshly collected samples and use of these tubes to store samples from dogs with conditions affecting the urinary tract.
Objective—To evaluate 2 plate designs for pancarpal arthrodesis and their effects on load transfer to the respective bones as well as to develop a computational model with directed input from the biomechanical testing of the 2 constructs.
Sample—Both forelimbs from the cadaver of an adult castrated male Golden Retriever.
Procedures—CT imaging was performed on the forelimb pair. Each forelimb was subsequently instrumented with a hybrid dynamic compression plate or a castless pancarpal arthrodesis plate. Biomechanical testing was performed. The forelimbs were statically loaded in the elastic range and then cyclically loaded to failure. Finite element (FE) modeling was used to compare the 2 plate designs with respect to bone and implant stress distribution and magnitude when loaded.
Results—Cyclic loading to failure elicited failure patterns similar to those observed clinically. The mean ± SD error between computational and experimental strain was < 15% ± 13% at the maximum loads applied during static elastic loading. The highest bone stresses were at the distal extent of the metacarpal bones at the level of the screw holes with both plates; however, the compression plate resulted in slightly greater stresses than did the arthrodesis plate. Both models also revealed an increase in bone stress at the proximal screw position in the radius. The highest plate stress was identified at the level of the radiocarpal bone, and an increased screw stress (junction of screw head with shaft) was identified at both the most proximal and distal ends of the plates.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The FE model successfully approximated the biomechanical characteristics of an ex vivo pancarpal plate construct for comparison of the effects of application of different plate designs.
Objective—To determine the effects of intratumoral injection of a hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate on local and systemic platinum concentrations and systemic toxicosis.
Animals—5 dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).
Procedures—For each dog, approximately 1.5 mL of hyaluronan nanocarrier conjugated with 20 mg of cisplatin was injected into an external STS. Blood samples were collected immediately before (0 hours) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for pharmacokinetic analyses. Urine samples were obtained at 0 and at 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for urinalysis. Each treated STS and its sentinel lymph nodes were surgically removed 96 hours after the hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum concentrations in blood samples, tumors, and lymph nodes.
Results—No tissue reactions were detected 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Mean ± SD area under the curve, peak concentration, and terminal half-life for unbound (plasma) and total (serum) platinum were 774.6 ± 221.1 ng•h/mL and 3,562.1 ± 2,031.1 ng•h/mL, 56.5 ± 20.9 ng/mL and 81.6 ± 40.4 ng/mL, and 33.6 ± 16.1 hours and 51.2 ± 29.1 hours, respectively. Platinum concentrations ranged from 3,325 to 8,229 ng/g in STSs and 130 to 6,066 ng/g in STS-associated lymph nodes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intratumoral injection of the hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate was well tolerated in treated dogs. Following intratumoral hyaluronan-cisplatin injection, platinum concentration was 1,000-fold and 100-fold greater within treated tumors and tumor-draining lymphatics, respectively, compared with that in plasma.
Objective—To assess cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and prostanoid concentrations in pyloric and duodenal mucosae of dogs after administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Animals—8 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Each dog received carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, q 24 h), aspirin (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), and placebo (1 dog treat, q 24 h) orally for 3 days (4-week interval between treatments). Before study commencement (baseline) and on day 3 of each treatment, pyloric and duodenal mucosal appearance was assessed endoscopically and biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic examination. Cyclooxygenase-1 and COX-2 protein expressions were assessed via western blotting, and prostanoid concentrations were measured via ELISAs. An ANOVA was used to analyze data.
Results—Treatments had no effect on mucosal appearance and ulceration was not evident histologically. In pyloric and duodenal mucosae, COX-1 expression was unaffected by treatments. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression remained unchanged in pyloric mucosa; in duodenal mucosa, aspirin significantly increased COX-2 expression, compared with effects of deracoxib and carprofen. At baseline, total prostaglandin and thromboxane B2 concentrations in pyloric mucosa were significantly greater than those in duodenal mucosa. Aspirin significantly decreased both prostanoid concentrations in both mucosal tissues, compared with other treatments. In pyloric mucosa, carprofen administration significantly decreased total prostaglandin and thromboxane B2 concentrations, compared with deracoxib administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, prostanoid synthesis was greater in pyloric mucosa than it was in duodenal mucosa. Nonselective NSAIDs significantly decreased prostanoid concentrations in these mucosae, compared with the effects of a selective COX-2 NSAID.
OBJECTIVE To identify knowledge and practices related to rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring among animal care workers in the United States.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE 2,334 animal care workers (ie, veterinarians, veterinary technicians, animal control workers, and wildlife rehabilitators).
PROCEDURES Participants were contacted through relevant professional organizations to participate in an anonymous web-based survey. The survey collected demographic and occupational information, animal handling and potential rabies exposure information, and individual rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring practices. Comparisons of animal bite and rabies exposure rates were made between occupational groups. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with rabies vaccination status and adherence to serologic monitoring recommendations.
RESULTS Respondents reported 0.77 animal bites/person-year or 0.10 bites/1,000 animals handled. The overall rate of postexposure prophylaxis due to an occupational rabies exposure was 1.07/100 person-years. Veterinarians reported the highest rabies vaccination rate (98.7% [367/372]), followed by animal control workers (78.5% [344/438]), wildlife rehabilitators (78.2% [122/156]), and veterinary technicians (69.3% [937/1,352]). Respondents working for employers requiring rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring were 32.16 and 6.14 times, respectively, as likely to be vaccinated or have a current serologic monitoring status as were respondents working for employers without such policies.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, given the high reported rates of animal bites and potential rabies exposures among animal care workers, improvements in rabies vaccination and serologic monitoring practices are needed.
Objective—To determine percentages of domestic cats and dogs vaccinated against rabies, identify barriers to vaccination, and assess knowledge about rabies in a semirural New Mexico community after a skunk rabies outbreak.
Sample—366 residential properties in Eddy County, NM.
Procedures—The New Mexico Department of Health and CDC administered surveys and analyzed data.
Results—Individuals at 247 of the 366 residential properties participated in the survey. One hundred eighty of the 247 (73%) households owned a dog (n = 292) or cat (163). Cats were more likely than dogs to not have an up-to-date rabies vaccination status (prevalence ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 4.4). Cost and time or scheduling were the most frequently identified barriers to vaccination. One hundred sixty (65%) respondents did not know livestock can transmit rabies, 78 (32%) did not know rabies is fatal, and 89 (36%) did not know a bat scratching a person can be an exposure. Only 187 (76%) respondents indicated they would contact animal control if they saw a sick skunk, and only 166 (67%) indicated they would contact animal control if bitten by a dog they did not own.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that rabies vaccination prevalence among pet dogs and cats was low, despite the fact that the region had experienced a skunk rabies outbreak during the previous 2 years. In addition, substantial percentages of respondents did not have correct knowledge of rabies or rabies exposure.