Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Mark R. Ackermann x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objectives—To determine effects of selectin inhibitor TBC1269 on neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophilassociated injury during pneumonia induced by Mannheimia haemolytica and concentration of antimicrobial anionic peptide (AAP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as antimicrobial activity of BALF from healthy (control) neonatal calves, neonatal calves with M haemolytica-induced pneumonia, neonatal calves with prior treatment with TBC1269, and adult cattle.

Animals—Eighteen 1- to 3-day-old calves and 9 adult cattle.

Procedure—Calves were inoculated with M haemolyticaor pyrogen-free saline (0.14M NaCl) solution into the right cranial lung lobe, and BALF was collected 2 or 6 hours after inoculation. Thirty minutes before and 2 hours after inoculation, 4 calves received TBC1269. The BALF collected from 9 adult cattle was used for comparison of BALF AAP concentration and antimicrobial activity. Protein concentration and neutrophil differential percentage and degeneration in BALF were determined. An ELISA and killing assay were used to determine BALF AAP concentration and antimicrobial activity, respectively.

Results—Total protein concentration was significantly decreased in BALF from calves receiving TBC1269. Similar concentrations of AAP were detected in BALF from all calves, which were 3-fold higher than those in BALF from adult cattle. However, BALF from neonates had little or no anti-M haemolytica activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results suggest that TBC1269 decreases pulmonary tissue injury in neonatal calves infected with M haemolytica. Although AAP is detectable in neonatal BALF at 3 times the concentration detected in adult BALF, neonatal BALF lacks antimicrobial activity for M haemolytica. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:665–672)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of the selectin inhibitor TBC1269 on neutrophil-mediated pulmonary damage during acute Mannheimia haemolytica-induced pneumonia in newborn calves.

Animals—Eighteen 1- to 3-day-old colostrumdeprived calves.

ProcedureMannheimia haemolytica or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was inoculated in both cranial lung lobes of 12 and 6 calves, respectively. Calves were euthanatized 2 (saline, n = 3; M haemolytica, n = 4) or 6 hours (saline, n = 3; M haemolytica, n = 8) after inoculation. Four M haemolytica-inoculated calves euthanatized at 6 hours also received TBC1269 (25 mg/kg, IV) 30 minutes before and 2 hours after inoculation. Conjugated diene (CD) concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and apoptotic cell counts were determined in lung specimens collected during necropsy.

Results—Conjugated diene concentrations were significantly increased in all M haemolytica-inoculated groups, compared with saline-inoculated groups. Calves treated with TBC1269 had decreased concentrations of CD, compared with untreated calves, although the difference was not significant. Number of apoptotic neutrophils and macrophages increased significantly in TBC1269-treated calves, compared with untreated calves. Inducible nitric oxide synthase was expressed by epithelial cells and leukocytes. However, iNOS was less abundant in airway epithelial cells associated with inflammatory exudates. Degree of iNOS expression was similar between TBC1269-treated and untreated calves.

ConclusionsMannheimia haemolytica infection in neonatal calves resulted in pulmonary tissue damage and decreased epithelial cell iNOS expression. The selectin inhibitor TCB1269 altered, but did not completely inhibit, neutrophil-mediated pulmonary damage. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:17–22)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure serum calprotectin concentration in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) before and after initiation of treatment and evaluate its correlation with a clinical scoring system (canine IBD activity index), serum canine C-reactive protein concentration, and severity of histopathologic changes.

Animals—34 dogs with idiopathic IBD and 139 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—From dogs with IBD, blood samples were collected immediately before (baseline) and 3 weeks after initiation of 1 of 2 treatments: prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; n = 21) or a combination of prednisone and metronidazole (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; 13). Blood samples were collected once from each of the control dogs. For all samples, serum calprotectin concentration was determined via radioimmunoassay.

Results—Mean serum calprotectin concentrations for dogs with IBD at baseline (431.1 μg/L) and 3 weeks after initiation of treatment (676.9 μg/L) were significantly higher, compared with that (219.4 μg/L) for control dogs, and were not significantly correlated with the canine IBD activity index, serum C-reactive protein concentration, or severity of histopathologic changes. The use of a serum calprotectin concentration of ≥ 296.0 μg/L as a cutoff had a sensitivity of 82.4% (95% confidence interval, 65.5% to 93.2%) and specificity of 68.4% (95% confidence interval, 59.9% to 76.0%) for distinguishing dogs with idiopathic IBD from healthy dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum calprotectin concentration may be a useful biomarker for the detection of inflammation in dogs, but the use of certain drugs (eg, glucocorticoids) appears to limit its clinical usefulness.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize mucosal gene expression in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE).

Animals—18 dogs with CE and 6 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—Small intestinal mucosal biopsy specimens were endoscopically obtained from dogs. Disease severity in dogs with CE was determined via inflammatory bowel index scores and histologic grading of biopsy specimens. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and microchip array analysis (approx 43,000 probe sets) and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays were performed.

Results—1,875 genes were differentially expressed between dogs with CE and healthy control dogs; 1,582 (85%) genes were downregulated in dogs with CE, including neurotensin, fatty acid–binding protein 6, fatty acid synthase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member B1, metallothionein, and claudin 8, whereas few genes were upregulated in dogs with CE, including genes encoding products involved in extracellular matrix degradation (matrix metallopeptidases 1, 3, and 13), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-8, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ, and S100 calcium-binding protein G), iron transport (solute carrier family 40 member 1), and immunity (CD96 and carcinoembryonic antigen–related cell adhesion molecule [CEACAM] 18). Dogs with CE and protein-losing enteropathy had the greatest number of differentially expressed genes. Results of quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay for select genes were similar to those for microchip array analysis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Expression of genes encoding products regulating mucosal inflammation was altered in dogs with CE and varied with disease severity.

Impact for Human Medicine—Molecular pathogenesis of CE in dogs may be similar to that in humans with inflammatory bowel disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research