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  • Author or Editor: Mark J. Dallman x
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Case histories of 105 dogs that were treated for cervical intervertebral disk disease (ivdd) were studied retrospectively. To compare with previous data, dogs were grouped by age, gender, and breed. Dogs were also grouped by clinical signs of disease, and by presence and location of radiologic change.

The age range of cases of cervical ivdd was 1 to 13 years (mean, 6.3 years). Fifty-nine percent of dogs treated for cervical ivdd were females, but the proportion of diseased females was similar to females in total hospital admissions. Twenty-eight breeds of dogs were treated for cervical ivdd. Dachshunds and Beagles were significantly over represented (P ≤ 0.001). However, gender-breed interaction was not observed.

Prevalence of radiologic evidence of disk disease was detected at the following levels of the vetebral column: C2-3, 29%; C3-4, 24%; C4-5, 21%; C5-6, 15%; C6-7, 9%; and C7-T1, 2%. Significant difference was not observed in prevalence of cervical ivdd affecting the first 4 disk spaces. However, prevalence of cervical ivdd at C7-T1 was significantly less than that involving the first 4 disk spaces (P < 0.02), and the space at C6-7 was significantly less affected than were the first 3 spaces (P < 0.08).

Significant association was not evident between clinical signs (pain and neurologic deficits) and radiologic signs of ivdd, although neurologic deficits were more likely to be observed in association with radiologic signs than with signs of pain.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Intervertebral disk space widths were measured on lateral radiographs of 73 anesthetized dogs. Weight was found to have a significant (P < 0.01) effect on disk space width. Using weight-adjusted disk space width measurements for all subsequent studies, older (7- to 16-year-old) dogs and males had consistently, but not significantly, wider, disk spaces than did alternative groups. Cervical and lumbar intervertebral disk spaces tended to be wider than those in the caudal thoracic region. The widest cervical intervertebral disk spaces were C4-5 and C5-6 and the narrowest was C2-3. In the lumbar region, L2-3 was the widest disk space and L4-5 was the narrowest. Dachshunds generally had greater mean intervertebral disk space width than did other breeds of dogs.

Cervical (n = 6 dogs) and thoracolumbar (n = 6 dogs) disk fenestration resulted in narrow intervertebral disk spaces, regardless of breed. When a ventral approach was used in thoracolumbar fenestration, the mean intervertebral disk space was narrower than that resulting from use of a dorsolateral approach.

Spondylosis was found radiographically 1 to 4 years after intervertebral disk fenestration in 3 of 6 dogs that had cervical fenestrations and in 5 of 6 dogs that underwent thoracolumbar fenestration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Transverse midshaft fractures of femurs from freshly euthanatized dogs were stabilized by means of 6 methods: (1) 3.5-mm bone plate and screws, (2) single intramedullary pin, (3) double intramedullary pins retrograded proximally and driven distally to the level of the femoral trochlea, (4) double intramedullary pins retrograded distally and driven proximally into the trochanteric region, (5) double intramedullary pinning in Rush pin fashion, and (6) multiple intramedullary pinning that filled the medullary cavity at the fracture site.

All bones were subjected to torsional stress. The measured strain was converted to forces of torque and correlated with bone diameter to normalize the data. The forces of torque from each fixation technique were compared with each other and with the mean torque force necessary to fracture intact femurs.

Torsional shear applied to plated femurs resulted in failure at a mean level of 33.8% of the calculated theoretic moment. Torsional forces were concentrated at one end of the plate and catastrophically failed at that point, whereas the fracture site remained rigidly fixed. There was no significant difference in the initial moment of torsional failure between the single intramedullary pin technique (0,05 Nm) and the double-pinning techniques (0.03 Co 0.04 Nm). The multiple-pinning technique was 1.8 to 3 times as effective in resisting rotational forces, compared with the other pinning techniques, but not significantly so.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research