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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether blood lactate values determined in dogs with 4 commercially available point-of-care meters were in agreement with values determined with a critical care laboratory blood analyzer.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—50 dogs evaluated for emergency treatment.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected at initial evaluation and processed on 4 point-of-care meters and on a critical care laboratory blood analyzer.

Results—All 4 point-of-care lactate meters generated measurements that were in agreement with the hospital's critical care analyzer. Values for agreement (bias) between the 4 point-of-care meters and the critical care analyzer were −0.652 (limits of agreement [LA], −1.958 to 0.654]), −0.670 (LA, −2.110 to 0.769), −0.096 (LA, −2.071 to 1.879), and −0.498 (LA, −2.616 to 1.620), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite its prognostic and therapeutic relevance, blood lactate measurement in dogs has been hampered by the inability to perform the test in a timely fashion. Results of the present study indicated that several handheld point-of-care lactate meters provided results that were in agreement with a laboratory critical care blood analyzer.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen concentration in canine blood samples collected via an indwelling IV catheter and direct venipuncture.

Animals—35 dogs admitted to an intensive care unit that required placement of an IV catheter for treatment.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected via IV catheter and direct venipuncture at the time of catheter placement and 24 hours after catheter placement. Prothrombin time, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration were measured.

Results—5 dogs were excluded from the study; results were obtained for the remaining 30 dogs. Agreement (bias) for PT was −0.327 seconds (limits of agreement, −1.350 to 0.696 seconds) and 0.003 seconds (limits of agreement, −1.120 to 1.127 seconds) for the 0- and 24-hour time points, respectively. Agreement for APTT was −0.423 seconds (limits of agreement, −3.123 to 2.276 seconds) and 0.677 seconds (limits of agreement, −3.854 to 5.207 seconds) for the 0- and 24-hour time points, respectively. Agreement for fibrinogen concentration was −2.333 mg/dL (limits of agreement, −80.639 to 75.973 mg/dL) and −1.767 mg/dL (limits of agreement, −50.056 to 46.523 mg/dL) for the 0- and 24-hour time points, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between the 2 techniques for sample collection was clinically acceptable for PT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration at time 0 and 24 hours. It is often difficult or undesirable to perform multiple direct venipunctures in critically ill patients. Use of samples collected via an IV catheter to monitor PT and APTT can eliminate additional venous trauma and patient discomfort and reduce the volume of blood collected from these compromised patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there are increased concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitaminn D3 in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after exposure to UV radiation.

Animals—12 yearling turtles recently removed from aestivation.

Procedures—Turtles were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 turtles/group). An initial blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations. Turtles of 1 group were then provided no supplemental lighting, whereas turtles of the other group were exposed to full-spectrum coil bulbs at a distance of 22.86 cm. The UV-A and UV-B radiation generated by the supplemental lighting was measured by use of a radiometer-photometer at weekly intervals. Measurements were collected 2.54 and 22.86 cm from the bulb surface. The study was continued for a 4-week period. At the end of the study, a second blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

Results—Mean ± SD 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations differed significantly between turtles provided supplemental UV radiation (71.7 ± 46.9 nmol/L) and those not provided UV radiation (31.4 ± 13.2 nmol/L).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Appropriate husbandry recommendations for raising and maintaining red-eared slider turtles should include use of sunlight that is unobstructed by UV-B filtering material or provision of an artificial source of UV-B radiation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
History

A 4-year-old 32.0-kg (70.4-lb) sexually intact male German Wirehaired Pointing Griffon was evaluated on emergency referral to the Louisiana State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of complications related to cottonmouth envenomation of the muzzle 4 days prior. Initially, the dog was treated with 5 mL of dexamethasone and 5 mL of penicillin (day 0) by the referring veterinarian; it was then sent home, and treatment with amoxicillin (500 mg, PO, q 12 h) was initiated. Two days after that initial visit (day 2), the dog developed considerable swelling, signs of pain, anorexia, and vomiting. On reexamination, treatment with carprofen

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the association between urine osmolality and specific gravity (USG) in dogs and to evaluate the effect of commonly measured urine solutes on that association.

Animals—60 dogs evaluated by an internal medicine service.

Procedures—From each dog, urine was obtained by cystocentesis and USG was determined with a refractometer. The sample was divided, and one aliquot was sent to a diagnostic laboratory for urinalysis and the other was frozen at −80°C until osmolality was determined. Urine samples were thawed and osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The correlation between mean urine osmolality and USG was determined; the effect of pH, proteinuria, glucosuria, ketonuria, bilirubinuria, and hemoglobinuria on this relationship was investigated with multiple regression analysis.

Results—The Pearson correlation coefficient between urine osmolality and USG was 0.87. The final multivariable regression model for urine osmolality included USG and the presence of ketones; ketonuria had a small negative association with urine osmolality.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated a strong linear correlation between osmolality and USG in urine samples obtained from dogs with various pathological conditions, and ketonuria had a small negative effect on that correlation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units yield measurements that are in good agreement with directly measured blood pressures in cats.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—21 cats undergoing routine spaying or neutering.

Procedures—A 24-gauge catheter was inserted in a dorsal pedal artery, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were directly measured with a validated pressure measurement system. Values were compared with indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units.

Results—There was poor agreement between indirectly and directly measured blood pressures. For unit 1, bias between indirectly and directly measured values was −14.9 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −52.2 to 22.4 mm Hg), 4.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.0 to 34.8 mm Hg), and −1.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.7 to 24.1 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 2, bias was −10.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −52.9 to 32.2 mm Hg), 13.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.1 to 58.0 mm Hg), and 9.1 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.9 to 51.2 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 3, bias was −13.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −51.8 to 25.1 mm Hg), 8.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −25.5 to 41.6 mm Hg), and −3.6 mm Hg (95% LOA, −31.6 to 24.5 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that none of the 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units could be recommended for indirect measurement of blood pressure in cats.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of 24 hours of refrigeration on urine samples collected from dogs with signs of urinary tract infection (UTI).

DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 104 dogs with signs consistent with UTI that had a urine sample collected via cystocentesis as part of their diagnostic workup.

PROCEDURES A 1-mL aliquot of each urine sample was refrigerated at 5°C for 24 hours in a plain glass tube, then processed for quantitative bacterial culture (QBC). A 0.5-mL aliquot was added to 3 mL of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and refrigerated at 5°C for 24 hours, then processed for QBC. The remaining portion was immediately processed for QBC, with results reported as numbers of bacterial colony–forming units (CFUs). Sensitivity of the QBC for detection of bacteria (and therefore UTI) was determined for sample refrigeration in the 2 conditions, compared with immediate processing (reference standard).

RESULTS Bacterial growth was identified in 35.6% (n = 37), 33.7% (35), and 31.7% (33) of the immediately processed, refrigerated, and refrigerated-in-TSB urine samples, respectively. Sample refrigeration without TSB resulted in no significant difference in CFU counts relative to immediate processing; however, the sensitivity of this method was 95% (35/37). Sample refrigeration with TSB resulted in significantly lower CFU counts, and sensitivity was only 89% (33/37).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine urine samples collected for bacterial culture should be immediately submitted for testing. Although CFU counts for refrigerated and immediately processed samples were statistically similar in this study, sample refrigeration in enrichment broth resulted in imperfect sensitivity for UTI detection and is not recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old 8.3-kg (18.3-lb) neutered male Miniature Schnauzer was referred for diagnosis and treatment of a sudden onset of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and pallor.

CLINICAL FINDINGS On physical examination, the dog was lethargic with pale mucous membranes and a capillary refill time ≥ 2 seconds. Skin and sclera were mildly icteric. Signs of pain were elicited during abdominal palpation, and an enlarged spleen was noted. Results of agglutination testing and cytologic findings were consistent with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). No contributing factors for development of IMHA were identified.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment included management with immunosuppressant medications. Three packed RBC transfusions were administered, but clinical signs continued to progress. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was performed 5 and 9 days after admission. Following each TPE procedure, the dog had an appreciable clinical improvement and decrease in RBC autoagglutination, and the Hct stabilized. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations were measured during and after both TPE procedures. Despite anticoagulative treatment, the dog developed a thrombus in the splenic vein, necessitating a splenectomy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE The decrease and rebound in serum IgG and IgM concentrations following TPE provided evidence that TPE may have the same immunomodulatory effects in dogs as have been proposed to occur in people. Further, findings suggested that TPE may be a useful alternative in dogs with refractory IMHA when traditional treatments fail.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate agreement of blood glucose concentrations measured in juvenile white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by use of 2 point-of-care (POC) blood glucose meters and 1 portable chemistry analyzer with values obtained in serum by use of a standard laboratory chemistry analyzer, and to evaluate agreement between results obtained with the 2 POC meters.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Sample—14 venous blood samples from 14 healthy white-tailed deer fawns.

Procedures—Blood glucose concentration was measured with each of 2 POC meters. The remainder of the sample was divided into 2 tubes (1 that contained lithium heparin and 1 with no anticoagulant). Glucose concentration in anticoagulated whole blood was measured with the portable analyzer. Serum was collected from the remaining sample for measurement of glucose concentrations with the laboratory analyzer. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement.

Results—Agreement between POC blood glucose meters and the laboratory analyzer was poor; mean values for bias were 2.9 mg/dL (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −70.2 to 76.0 mg/dL) and −30.8 mg/dL (95% LOA, −111.6 to 49.9 mg/dL), respectively. Agreement between the 2 POC meters was also poor (bias, 31.0 mg/dL; 95% LOA, −47.2 to 109.2 mg/dL). Agreement between the portable analyzer and the laboratory analyzer was good (bias, −1.6 mg/dL; 95% LOA, −15.3 to 12.1 mg/dL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the POC blood glucose meters used in this study are not appropriate for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in juvenile white-tailed deer.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a combination of 2 nonantibiotic microbicide compounds, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), as a treatment to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp from red-eared slider (RES) turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eggs and hatchlings.

Sample Population—2,738 eggs from 8 turtle farms in Louisiana.

Procedures—Eggs were randomly sorted into 3 or, when sufficient eggs were available, 4 treatment groups as follows: control, pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and gentamicin, NaOCl and PHMB bath treatment, and pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and PHMB. Bacterial cultures were performed from specimens of eggs and hatchlings and evaluated for Salmonella spp.

Results—RES turtle eggs treated with NaOCl and PHMB as a bath (odds ratio [OR], 0.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1 to 0.3]) or as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.001 to 0.07]) or with gentamicin as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.1 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.2]) were significantly less likely to have Salmonella-positive culture results than control-group eggs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concern over reptile-associated salmonellosis in children in the United States is so great that federal regulations prohibit the sale of turtles that are < 10.2 cm in length. Currently, turtle farms treat eggs with gentamicin solution. Although this has reduced Salmonella shedding, it has also resulted in antimicrobial resistance. Results of our study indicate that a combination of NaOCl and PHMB may be used to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp on RES turtle eggs and in hatchlings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research