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Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in dogs, including oral absorption following administration of generic ciprofloxacin tablets.

Animals—6 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—In a crossover study design, ciprofloxacin was administered as a generic tablet (250 mg, PO; mean dose, 23 mg/kg) and solution (10 mg/kg, IV) to 6 dogs. In a separate experiment, 4 of the dogs received ciprofloxacin solution (10 mg/mL) PO via stomach tube (total dose, 250 mg). Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and for 24 hours after each dose. Plasma concentrations were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by means of compartmental modeling.

Results—When ciprofloxacin was administered as tablets PO, peak plasma concentration was 4.4 μg/mL (coefficient of variation [CV], 55.9%), terminal half-life (t1/2) was 2.6 hours (CV, 10.8%), area under the time-concentration curve was 22.5 μg•h/mL (CV, 62.3%), and systemic absorption was 58.4% (CV, 45.4%). For the dose administered IV, t1/2 was 3.7 hours (CV, 52.3%), clearance was 0.588 L/kg/h (CV, 33.9%), and volume of distribution was 2.39 L/kg (CV, 23.7%). After PO administration as a solution versus IV administration, plasma concentrations were more uniform and consistent among dogs, with absorption of 71% (CV, 7.3%), t1/2 of 3.1 hours (CV, 18.6%), and peak plasma concentration of 4.67 μg/mL (CV, 17.6%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inconsistent oral absorption of ciprofloxacin in some dogs may be formulation dependent and affected by tablet dissolution in the small intestine. Because of the wide range in oral absorption of tablets, the dose needed to reach the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target concentration in this study ranged from 12 to 52 mg/kg (CV, 102%), with a mean dose of 25 mg/kg, once daily, for bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 0.25 μg/mL.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate pharmacokinetic variables and measure tissue fluid concentrations of meropenem after IV and SC administration in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were administered a single dose of meropenem (20 mg/kg) IV and SC in a crossover design. To characterize the distribution of meropenem in dogs and to evaluate a unique tissue fluid collection method, an in vivo ultrafiltration device was used to collect interstitial fluid. Plasma, tissue fluid, and urine samples were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Protein binding was determined by use of an ultrafiltration device.

Results—Plasma data were analyzed by compartmental and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods. Mean ± SD values for half-life, volume of distribution, and clearance after IV administration for plasma samples were 0.67 ± 0.07 hours, 0.372 ± 0.053 L/kg, and 6.53 ± 1.51 mL/min/kg, respectively, and half-life for tissue fluid samples was 1.15 ± 0.57 hours. Half-life after SC administration was 0.98 ± 0.21 and 1.31 ± 0.54 hours for plasma and tissue fluid, respectively. Protein binding was 11.87%, and bioavailability after SC administration was 84%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of our data revealed that tissue fluid and plasma (unbound fraction) concentrations were similar. Because of the kinetic similarity of meropenem in the extravascular and vascular spaces, tissue fluid concentrations can be predicted from plasma concentrations. We concluded that a dosage of 8 mg/kg, SC, every 12 hours would achieve adequate tissue fluid and urine concentrations for susceptible bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.12 µg/mL. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1622–1628)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in dogs given an IV solution, oral suspension, and delayed-release tablet.

ANIMALS 6 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Posaconazole was administered IV (3 mg/kg) and as an oral suspension (6 mg/kg) to dogs in a randomized crossover study. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and for 48 hours after each dose. In an additional experiment, 5 of the dogs received posaconazole delayed-release tablets (mean dose, 6.9 mg/kg); blood samples were collected for 96 hours. Plasma concentrations were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS IV solution terminal half-life (t1/2) was 29 hours (coefficient of variation [CV], 23%). Clearance and volume of distribution were 78 mL/h/kg (CV, 59%) and 3.3 L/kg (CV, 38%), respectively. Oral suspension t1/2 was 24 hours (CV, 42%). Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 0.42 μg/mL (CV, 56%) was obtained at 7.7 hours (CV, 92%). Mean bioavailability was 26% (range, 7.8% to 160%). Delayed-release tablet t1/2 was 42 hours (CV, 25%), with a Cmax of 1.8 μg/mL (CV, 44%) at 9.5 hours (CV, 85%). Mean bioavailability of tablets was 159% (range, 85% to 500%). Bioavailability of delayed-release tablets was 497% (range, 140% to 1,800%) relative to that of the oral suspension.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Absorption of posaconazole oral suspension in dogs was variable. Absorption of the delayed-release tablets was greater than absorption of the oral suspension, with a longer t1/2 that may favor its clinical use in dogs. Administration of delayed-release tablets at a dosage of 5 mg/kg every other day can be considered for future studies.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Abstract

Antibiotic recommendations for treating skin infections have been published many times in the past 30 years. Prior to 2000, the recommendations focused on the use of β-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalosporins, amoxicillin-clavulanate, or β-lactamase stable penicillins. These agents are still recommended, and used, for wild-type methicillin-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus spp. However, since the mid-2000s there has been an increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp (MRSP). The increase among S pseudintermedius in animals coincided with the increase in methicillin-resistant S aureus that was observed in people near the same time. This increase led veterinarians to reevaluate their approach to treating skin infections, particularly in dogs. Prior antibiotic exposure and hospitalization are identified as risk factors for MRSP. Topical treatments are more often used to treat these infections. Culture and susceptibility testing is performed more often, especially in refractory cases, to identify MRSP. If resistant strains are identified, veterinarians may have to rely on antibiotics that were previously used uncommonly for skin infections, such as chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and human-label antibiotics such as rifampin and linezolid. These drugs carry risks and uncertainties that must be considered before they are routinely prescribed. This article will discuss these concerns and provide veterinarians guidance on the treatment of these skin infections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A cross-over study was performed in 6 healthy mixed-breed dogs and 4 healthy Beagles. Diazepam was administered per rectum to Beagles (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) and mixed-breed dogs (2 mg/kg), and iv (0.5 mg/kg) to both groups of dogs. Each dog received the drug by both routes, with a 1-week washout period between dosages. After diazepam administration, blood samples were collected to measure plasma concentration of diazepam and its active metabolites, desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam, by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). Systemic availability was assessed by comparing the area under the curve for diazepam metabolites for each route of administration. Mean (± sd) diazepam concentrations in plasma after rectal administration were low in comparison with those obtained after iv administration, with systemic availability of only 7.4 (± 5.9) and 2.7 (± 3.2)% for the high and low dose, respectively. However, diazepam was converted to its metabolites within minutes after administration. Accounting for the total concentration of benzodiazepines (diazepam plus desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam) in plasma, systemic availability was 79.9 (± 20.7) and 66.0 (± 23.8)% for the high and low dosage, respectively. After iv administration, diazepam concentration decreased, with a half-life of only 14 to 16 minutes, but desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam concentrations decreased more slowly, with a half-life of 2.2 to 2.8 hours and 3.5 to 5.1 hours, respectively.

Each of the metabolites is reported to have anticonvulsant activity. After rectal administration of the high dose, mean total benzodiazepine concentration was above 1.0 μg/ml within 10 minutes and was maintained above this concentration for at least 6 hours. We conclude that diazepam is absorbed after rectal administration in dogs, and that the pharmacologic effects are probably caused by the active metabolites, not the parent drug. Samples also were analyzed by use of a nonspecific commercial benzodiazepine fluorescence polarization immunoassay (fpia). Correlation between the fpia and hplc assay was strongest for diazepam (R 2 = 0.84), weak for desmethyldiazepam (R 2 = 0.09), and nonexistent for oxazepam. We conclude from a comparison of assays that hplc is preferred over the fpia method for measuring benzodiazepines in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin administered IV and in various oral preparations to ewes.

Animals—5 mature Katahdin ewes weighing 42 to 50 kg.

Procedure—Ewes received 4 single-dose treatments of enrofloxacin in a nonrandomized crossover design followed by a multiple-dose oral regimen. Single-dose treatments consisted of an IV bolus of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg), an oral drench (10 mg/kg) made from crushed enrofloxacin tablets, oral administration in feed (10 mg/kg; mixture of crushed enrofloxacin tablets and grain), and another type of oral administration in feed (10 mg/kg; mixture of enrofloxacin solution and grain). The multiple-dose regimen consisted of feeding a mixture of enrofloxacin solution and grain (10 mg/kg, q 24 h, for 7 days). Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Harmonic mean half-life for oral administration was 14.80, 10.80, and 13.07 hours, respectively, for the oral drench, crushed tablets in grain, and enrofloxacin solution in grain. Oral bioavailability for the oral drench, crushed tablets in grain, and enrofloxacin in grain was 47.89, 98.07, and 94.60%, respectively, and median maximum concentration (Cmax) was 1.61, 2.69, and 2.26 µg/ml, respectively. Median Cmax of the multiple-dose regimen was 2.99 µg/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enrofloxacin administered orally to sheep has a prolonged half-life and high oral bioavailability. Oral administration at 10 mg/kg, q 24 h, was sufficient to achieve a plasma concentration of 8 to 10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of any microorganism with an MIC ≤ 0.29 µg/ml. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:1012–1017)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma (total and unbound) and interstitial fluid (ISF) concentrations of doxycycline and meropenem in dogs following constant rate IV infusion of each drug.

Animals—6 adult Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were given a loading dose of doxycycline and meropenem followed by a constant rate IV infusion of each drug to maintain an 8-hour steady state concentration. Interstitial fluid was collected with an ultrafiltration device. Plasma and ISF were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Protein binding and lipophilicity were determined. Plasma data were analyzed by use of compartmental methods.

Results—Compared with meropenem, doxycycline had higher protein binding (11.87% [previously published value] vs 91.75 ± 0.63%) and lipophilicity (partition coefficients, 0.02 ± 0.01 vs 0.68 ± 0.05). A significant difference was found between ISF and plasma total doxycycline concentrations. No significant difference was found between ISF and plasma unbound doxycycline concentrations. Concentrations of meropenem in ISF and plasma (total and unbound) were similar. Plasma half-life, volume of distribution, and clearance were 4.56 ± 0.57 hours, 0.65 ± 0.82 L/kg, and 1.66 ± 2.21 mL/min/kg, respectively, for doxycycline and 0.73 ± 0.07 hours, 0.34 ± 0.06 L/kg, and 5.65 ± 2.76 mL/min/kg, respectively, for meropenem. The ISF half-life of doxycycline and meropenem was 4.94 ± 0.67 and 2.31 ± 0.36 hours, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The extent of protein binding determines distribution of doxycycline and meropenem into ISF. As a result of high protein binding, ISF doxycycline concentrations are lower than plasma total doxycycline concentrations. Concentrations of meropenem in ISF can be predicted from plasma total meropenem concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1040–1046)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol, the active metabolite O-desmethyltrcamadol, and the metabolites N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol after oral tramadol administration and to determine the antinociceptive effects of the drug in Greyhounds.

Animals—6 healthy 2- to 3-year-old Greyhounds (3 male and 3 female), weighing 25.5 to 41.1 kg.

Procedures—A mean dose of 9.9 mg of tramadol HCl/kg was administered PO as whole tablets. Blood samples were obtained prior to and at various points after administration to measure plasma concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites via liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Antinociceptive effects were determined by measurement of pain-pressure thresholds with a von Frey device.

Results—Tramadol was well tolerated, and a significant increase in pain-pressure thresholds was evident 5 and 6 hours after administration. The mean maximum plasma concentrations of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol, and N,O-didesmethyltramadol were 215.7, 5.7, 379.1, and 2372 ng/mL, respectively. The mean area-under-the-curve values for the compounds were 592, 16, 1,536, and 1,013 h·ng/mL, respectively. The terminal half-lives of the compounds were 1.1, 1.4, 2.3, and 3.6 hours, respectively. Tramadol was detected in urine 5 days, but not 7 days, after administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral tramadol administration yielded antinociceptive effects in Greyhounds, but plasma concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were lower than expected. Compared with the approved dose (100 mg, PO) in humans, a mean dose of 9.9 mg/kg, PO resulted in similar tramadol but lower O-desmethyltramadol plasma concentrations in Greyhounds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following oral administration of a generic levofloxacin tablet and IV administration to dogs and whether the achieved plasma levofloxacin concentration would be sufficient to treat susceptible bacterial infections.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Levofloxacin was administered orally as a generic 250-mg tablet (mean dose, 23.7 mg/kg) or IV as a solution (15 mg/kg) to each dog in a crossover study design, with treatments separated by a minimum 2-day washout period. Blood samples were collected at various points for measurement of plasma levofloxacin concentration via high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with compartmental modeling.

RESULTS

After oral administration of the levofloxacin tablet, mean (coefficient of variation) peak plasma concentration was 15.5 μg/mL (23.8%), mean elimination half-life was 5.84 hours (20.0%), and mean bioavailability was 104% (29.0%). After IV administration, mean elimination half-life (coefficient of variation) was 6.23 hours (14.7%), systemic clearance was 145.0 mL/kg/h (22.2%), and volume of distribution was 1.19 L/kg (17.1%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In these dogs, levofloxacin was well absorbed when administered orally, and a dose of approximately 25 mg/kg was sufficient to reach pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic targets for treating infections with susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (ie, ≤ 0.5 μg/mL) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ie, ≤ 1 μg/mL) according to clinical breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research