Objective—To compare the effects of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine administered IV on the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis.
Animals—15 adult dogs with ophthalmically normal eyes.
Procedures—Each dog was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatment groups were saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL, IV), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, IV), and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Each dog was anesthetized, treatment was administered, and aqueocentesis was performed on each eye at 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Aqueous humor samples were frozen at −80°C until assayed for PGE2 concentration with an enzyme immunoassay kit.
Results—For all 4 treatment groups, PGE2 concentration was significantly higher in samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, compared with that in samples obtained 30 minutes after treatment, which indicated aqueocentesis-induced PGE2 synthesis. For aqueous humor samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, PGE2 concentration did not differ significantly among groups treated with saline solution, meloxicam, and carprofen; however, the PGE2 concentration for the group treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that for each of the other 3 treatment groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flunixin meglumine was more effective than meloxicam or carprofen for minimizing the PGE2 concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Flunixin meglumine may be an appropriate pre-medication for use prior to intraocular surgery in dogs.
Objective—To assess gait abnormalities associated with selective anesthesia of the suprascapular nerve (SSN) achieved by use of perineural catheterization and thereby determine the function of that nerve as it relates to gait in horses.
Animals—3 adult horses with no preexisting clinically apparent lameness at a walk.
Procedure—Each horse was anesthetized; the right SSN was exposed surgically for placement of a perineural catheter to permit delivery of 1 mL of 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride. Six hours after recovery from anesthesia, each horse was videotaped while walking (50-step data acquisition period) before and after administration of mepivacaine. Videotapes were reviewed and the proportion of abnormal steps before and after selective SSN anesthesia was assessed. A step was considered abnormal if a marked amount of scapulohumeral joint instability (ie, lateral luxation of the proximal portion of the humerus) was observed during the weight-bearing phase of the stride.
Results—Clinically apparent gait dysfunction was detected in all 3 horses following perineural administration of the local anesthetic agent. Anesthesia of the SSN resulted in scapulohumeral joint instability as evidenced by consistent lateral excursion of the shoulder region during the weight-bearing phase of gait at a walk. The proportion of abnormal steps before and after SSN anesthesia was significantly different in all 3 horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data support the role of the SSN in shoulder joint stability in horses and define SSN dysfunction as 1 mechanism by which the syndrome and gait dysfunction clinically referred to as sweeny may develop.
Objective—To establish reference ranges for indices of urine N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and G-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in clinically normal adult dogs.
Procedures—Each dog underwent a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and serologic testing for heartworm antigen and antibodies against Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi. Activities of NAG and GGT in urine were evaluated, and values of the respective indices were determined as urine NAG or GGT activity (U/L) divided by urine creatinine concentration (g/L).
Results—All dogs were considered clinically normal. A 90% prediction interval based on the 5th and 95th percentiles for GGT and NAG index values from both sexes was used to establish the reference ranges for dogs: 1.93 to 28.57 U/g and 0.02 to 3.63 U/g, respectively. Between males and females, urine NAG index differed significantly, whereas urine GGT index did not. When accounting for sex differences, reference ranges for the urine NAG index in males and females were 0.02 to 3.65 U/g and 0.02 to 2.31 U/g, respectively. Changes in urine pH significantly affected the urine GGT index but not the urine NAG index. Neither index changed significantly with changes in body surface area.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that increases in urine NAG and GGT indices allow for earlier detection of renal tubular damage in dogs. Such early detection would enable adjustment of the clinical management of affected dogs to decrease morbidity and death rates associated with acute tubular injury and acute tubular necrosis.
Objective—To biomechanically evaluate various finger trap patterns and suture materials for securing 5F polyvinylchloride and polypropylene catheters.
Design—In vitro prospective study.
Sample—132 finger trap constructs.
Procedures—Each group of constructs comprised 6 to 10 replicates each of 3 finger trap patterns tied with 2–0 glycolide-lactide copolymer (GLC), braided nylon, and monofilament polypropylene suture on 5F polypropylene and polyvinylchloride catheters. The 3 finger trap variants were of similar lengths but differed in the number of surgeon's throws included in the pattern. Constructs were tested with a universal materials testing machine to the point of failure or a maximum of 100 mm of distraction. Force and distraction data were evaluated for significance with a competing risks model.
Results—There was no difference in performance (as measured by the proportion of test failures, median distraction distance, or median force at failure or end of testing) attributable to the finger trap pattern variants. Sixteen of 66 constructs with polyvinylchloride catheter material failed at ≤ 100 mm distraction, whereas all polypropylene constructs failed during testing. For polypropylene catheters, braided nylon or GLC suture withstood greater distraction distance and force, respectively. For polyvinylchloride catheters, differences among suture types were nonsignificant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggested that, for the material combinations evaluated, a finger trap suture pattern with fewer knots may provide catheter security similar to that for patterns tied with a more traditional pattern. These results should not be extrapolated to catheters of different diameters or materials, patterns tied with different suture sizes, or clinical performance in vivo without further testing.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of equivalent volumes of equine plasma and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (600/0.75) solution (hetastarch) administered IV on plasma colloid osmotic pressure (pCOP) and commonly monitored clinicopathologic variables in horses.
ANIMALS 6 healthy mares.
PROCEDURES In a randomized, crossover study, horses were administered hetastarch or plasma (both 10 mL/kg, IV) 18 months apart. The pCOP and variables of interest were measured before (baseline), immediately after, and at intervals up to 96 or 120 hours after infusion. Prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times were measured before and at 2 and 8 hours after each infusion.
RESULTS Prior to hetastarch and plasma infusions, mean ± SEM pCOP was 19.4 ± 0.5 mm Hg and 19.4 ± 0.8 mm Hg, respectively. In general, hetastarch and plasma infusions comparably increased pCOP from baseline for 48 hours, with maximum increases of 2.0 and 2.3 mm Hg, respectively. Mean Hct and hemoglobin, total protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased for a period of 72, 96, or 120 hours after hetastarch infusion with maximum decrements of 8.8%, 3.2 g/dL, 1.2 g/dL, and 0.6 g/dL, respectively. Plasma infusion decreased (albeit not always significantly) hemoglobin concentration and Hct for 20 and 24 hours (maximum changes of 1.5 g/dL and 6.6%, respectively) and increased total solids concentration (maximum change of 0.6 g/dL) for 48 hours. Platelet count and coagulation times were minimally affected.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, the hetastarch and plasma infusions comparably increased pCOP in healthy horses for up to 48 hours. Hetastarch induced greater, more persistent perturbations in clinicopathologic variables.
OBJECTIVE To determine rate of recurrence of disk herniation in dogs that underwent percutaneous laser disk ablation (PLDA) because of a previous episode of suspected or confirmed thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH).
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 303 dogs that underwent PLDA and for which a minimum of 3 years of follow-up information was available (n = 294) or for which recurrence was documented within 3 years after the procedure (9).
PROCEDURES Information on signalment, previous episodes of IVDH, specifics of the PLDA procedure, and recurrence was obtained from the medical records. Owners were contacted to complete a questionnaire regarding outcome and recurrence.
RESULTS 60 of the 303 (19.8%) dogs had an episode of suspected or confirmed IVDH after undergoing PLDA, but only 11 of the 303 (3.6%) dogs had a recurrence of IVDH confirmed by means of CT or MRI and hemilaminectomy. Recurrence rate following PLDA was not significantly different between dogs that had been treated medically for previous episodes of IVDH and dogs that had been treated surgically. Overall, 270 of 286 (94.4%) owners reported that their dog was the same (109 [38.1%]) or improved (161 [56.3%]) immediately after PLDA, and 265 (92.7%) owners rated their satisfaction with the procedure as ≥ 9 on a scale from 1 (completely dissatisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that PLDA was a relatively safe, minimally invasive procedure associated with a low rate of recurrence of disk herniation when performed in dogs with a history of previous episodes of suspected or confirmed IVDH.
Objective—To evaluate the musculoskeletal analgesic effect of etodolac administered PO every 12 or 24 hours in chronically lame horses by use of force plate analysis.
Animals—22 horses with navicular syndrome.
Procedure—Horses received etodolac (23 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; n = 7), etodolac (23 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h; 8), or corn syrup (20 mL, PO, q 24 h; control treatment; 7) for 3 days. Combined forelimb peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF) was measured via force plate analysis before the first treatment (baseline) and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after the last treatment. Differences in mean PVF (mPVF) between baseline and subsequent measurements were analyzed (repeated-measures ANOVA) and evaluated for treatment and time effects and treatment-time interaction.
Results—Once- or twice-daily administration of etodolac resulted in significant increases in mPVF from baseline at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the last treatment, compared with the control treatment. There were no significant differences in mPVF between the etodolac treatment groups at any time point. In both etodolac treatment groups, there was a significant increase in mPVF from baseline at 6, 12, and 24 hours, compared with that at 36 hours. Etodolac-associated adverse effects were not detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with navicular syndrome, once-daily oral administration of 23 mg of etodolac/kg appears to provide effective analgesia for as long as 24 hours. Twice-daily administration of etodolac at this same dose does not appear to provide any additional analgesic efficacy or duration of effect.
Objective—To use force plate analysis to evaluate the
analgesic efficacies of flunixin meglumine and
phenylbutazone administered IV at typical clinical
doses in horses with navicular syndrome.
Animals—12 horses with navicular syndrome that
were otherwise clinically normal.
Procedure—Horses received flunixin (1.1 mg/kg),
phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg), or physiologic saline
(0.9% NaCl; 1 mL/45 kg) solution administered IV
once daily for 4 days with a 14-day washout period
between treatments (3 treatments/horse). Before
beginning treatment (baseline) and 6, 12, 24, and 30
hours after the fourth dose of each treatment, horses
were evaluated by use of the American Association of
Equine Practitioners lameness scoring system (half
scores permitted) and peak vertical force of the forelimbs
was measured via a force plate.
Results—At 6, 12, and 24 hours after the fourth treatment,
subjective lameness evaluations and force
plate data indicated significant improvement in lameness
from baseline values in horses treated with flunixin
or phenylbutazone, compared with control horses;
at those time points, the assessed variables in flunixin-
or phenylbutazone-treated horses were not significantly
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses
with navicular syndrome treated once daily for 4 days,
typical clinical doses of flunixin and phenylbutazone
resulted in similar significant improvement in lameness
at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the final dose, compared
with findings in horses treated with saline solution.
The effect of flunixin or phenylbutazone was
maintained for at least 24 hours. Flunixin meglumine
and phenylbutazone appear to have similar analgesic
effects in horses with navicular syndrome. (Am J Vet
OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis in a large sample of dogs, compare outcomes achieved with fluconazole versus itraconazole, and identify variables available at the time of diagnosis with prognostic value.
DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.
ANIMALS 79 dogs with confirmed histoplasmosis evaluated at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 1999 through 2015.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding clinical signs at evaluation, physical examination findings, clinical laboratory values, other diagnostic test results, treatments, and outcomes. Data were compared between antifungal agents used (fluconazole or itraconazole) and between other variables.
RESULTS Various breeds were represented. Working and herding breeds had mostly disseminated histoplasmosis, and toy breeds had mostly the gastrointestinal form. The diagnosis was often achieved with noninvasive techniques, such as cytologic evaluation of rectal scrape samples (n = 24) or blood films (15). Clinical remission was achieved in 16 of 25 (64%) dogs receiving fluconazole and 17 of 24 (71%) dogs receiving itraconazole. No differences were identified between antifungal agents in survival, clinical remission, or disease relapse rates. Identified negative prognostic factors included Great Pyrenees breed, dyspnea, need for oxygen supplementation, icterus, palpable abdominal organomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and hyperbilirubinemia, whereas diarrhea was a positive prognostic factor.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that histoplasmosis should be considered in a sick dog of any breed in an endemic area. Clinical signs may be nonspecific. Diagnosis may often be possible with noninvasive and inexpensive tests. Either fluconazole or itraconazole may be an effective treatment option.
Objective—To compare anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects in dogs after IM administration of dexmedetomidine (7.5 μg/kg)–butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg)–tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg; DBTZ) or dexmedetomidine (15.0 μg/kg)-tramadol (3.0 mg/kg)-ketamine (3.0 mg/kg; DTrK) combinations.
Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Each dog received DBTZ and DTrK in a randomized, crossover-design study with a 5-day interval between treatments. Cardiorespiratory variables and duration and quality of sedation-anesthesia (assessed via auditory stimulation and sedation-anesthesia scoring) and analgesia (assessed via algometry and electrical nerve stimulation) were evaluated at predetermined intervals.
Results—DBTZ or DTrK induced general anesthesia sufficient for endotracheal intubation ≤ 7 minutes after injection. Anesthetic quality and time from drug administration to standing recovery (131.5 vs 109.5 minutes after injection of DBTZ and DTrK, respectively) were similar between treatments. Duration of analgesia was significantly longer with DBTZ treatment, compared with DTrK treatment. Analgesic effects were significantly greater with DBTZ treatment than with DTrK treatment at several time points. Transient hypertension (mean arterial blood pressure > 135 mm Hg), bradycardia (heart rate < 60 beats/min), and hypoxemia (oxygen saturation < 90% via pulse oximetry) were detected during both treatments. Tidal volume decreased significantly from baseline with both treatments and was significantly lower after DBTZ administration, compared with DTrK, at several time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DBTZ or DTrK rapidly induced short-term anesthesia and analgesia in healthy dogs. Further research is needed to assess efficacy of these drug combinations for surgical anesthesia. Supplemental 100% oxygen should be provided when DBTZ or DTrK are used.