Objectives—To evaluate clinical, laboratory, and necropsy findings in dogs with infective endocarditis (IE).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—71 dogs with possible or definite IE.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical features, and results of clinicopathologic testing and diagnostic imaging. Yearly incidence and the effect of variables on survival were determined by use of survival curve analysis.
Results—The overall incidence of IE was 0.05%. Most affected dogs were of large breeds, and > 75% were older than 5 years. The aortic valve was affected in 36 of the 71 (51%) dogs, and the mitral valve was affected in 59%. Lameness caused by immune-mediated polyarthritis, septic arthritis, or peripheral arterial thromboembolism was observed in 53% of the dogs. Neurologic complications were diagnosed in 17 of 71 (24%) dogs. Thromboembolic disease was suspected in 31 of 71 (44%) of dogs. The mortality rate associated with IE was 56%, and median survival time was 54 days. Factors negatively associated with survival included thrombocytopenia, high serum creatinine concentration, renal complications, and thromboembolic complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A diagnosis of IE should be suspected in dogs with fever, systolic or diastolic murmur, and locomotor problems. Dogs with thrombocytopenia, high serum creatinine concentration, thromboembolism, or renal complications may have a shorter survival time.
Objective—To quantify myocardial contrast enhancement
(MCE) of the left ventricle (LV) by use of cardiac
magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) in healthy cats
and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
and to compare MCE between the 2 groups.
Animals—10 healthy cats and 26 Maine Coon cats
with moderate to severe HCM but without clinical evidence
of congestive heart failure.
Procedure—Anesthetized cats underwent gradient
echo CMRI examination. Short-axis images of the LV
were acquired before and 7 minutes after IV administration
of gadolinium dimeglumine. Regions of interest
were manually traced in the quadrants of 5 mid-LV
slices acquired at end systole, and the MCE percentage
was calculated from summed weight-averaged
data from all slices. Doppler tissue imaging echocardiography
was performed to measure the early diastolic
myocardial velocity (Em) as an index of diastolic
function. Three-way repeated-measures ANOVA was
used to determine differences in MCE between cats
with HCM and healthy cats. Simple linear regression
was used to assess whether MCE was correlated
with LV mass, LV mass index (LVMI), or Em. A
Student t test was used to compare the SDs of the
postcontrast myocardial signal intensity between the
Results—There was no difference in MCE between
cats with HCM and healthy cats. There was no correlation
of MCE with LV mass, LVMI, or Em. There was
no difference in heterogeneity of signal intensities of
LV myocardium between the 2 groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrastenhancement
CMRI was not useful in detecting diffuse
myocardial fibrosis in cats with HCM. (Am J Vet
Objective—To determine cardiopulmonary effects of incremental doses of dopamine and phenylephrine during isoflurane-induced hypotension in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Animals—6 adult cats with severe naturally occurring HCM.
Procedures—Each cat was anesthetized twice (once for dopamine treatment and once for phenylephrine treatment; treatment order was randomized). Hypotension was induced by increasing isoflurane concentration. Cardiopulmonary data, including measurement of plasma concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), were obtained before anesthesia, 20 minutes after onset of hypotension, and 20 minutes after each incremental infusion of dopamine (2.5, 5, and 10 μg/kg/min) or phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/kg/min).
Results—Mean ± SD end-tidal isoflurane concentration for dopamine and phenylephrine was 2.44 ± 0.05% and 2.48 ± 0.04%, respectively. Cardiac index and tissue oxygen delivery were significantly increased after administration of dopamine, compared with results after administration of phenylephrine. Systemic vascular resistance index was significantly increased after administration of phenylephrine, compared with results after administration of dopamine. Oxygen consumption remained unchanged for both treatments. Systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressures were increased after administration of both dopamine and phenylephrine. Acid-base status and blood lactate concentration did not change and were not different between treatments. The cTnI concentration increased during anesthesia and infusion of dopamine and phenylephrine but did not differ significantly between treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dopamine and phenylephrine induced dose-dependent increases in systemic and pulmonary blood pressure, but only dopamine resulted in increased cardiac output. Hypotension and infusions of dopamine and phenylephrine caused significant increases in cTnI concentrations.
Objective—To evaluate microbiologic findings in dogs with infective endocarditis (IE) and determine whether there were differences in clinical features of disease caused by different groups of infective agents.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—71 dogs with suspected or definite IE.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing, serologic assays for vector-borne disease, and PCR testing on vegetative growths. Cases were grouped by causative organism and relationships among infectious agent group, and various hematologic, biochemical, and clinical variables were determined. Survival analyses were used to determine associations between infecting organisms and outcome.
Results—Causative bacteria were identified in 41 of 71 (58%) dogs. Gram-positive cocci were the causative agents in most (21/41; 51%) infections, with Streptococcus canis associated with 24% of infections. Gramnegative organisms were detected in 9 of the 41 (22%) dogs. Infection with Bartonella spp was detected in 6 of 31 (19%) dogs with negative results for microbial growth on blood culture. Aortic valve involvement and congestive heart failure were more frequent in dogs with endocarditis from Bartonella spp infection, and those dogs were more likely to be afebrile. Infection with Bartonella spp was negatively correlated with survival. Mitral valve involvement and polyarthritis were more frequent in dogs with streptococcal endocarditis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Streptococci were the most common cause of IE and were more likely to infect the mitral valve and be associated with polyarthritis. Dogs with IE secondary to Bartonella spp infection were often afebrile, more likely to develop congestive heart failure, rarely had mitral valve involvement, and had shorter survival times.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of heart murmurs in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) and determine whether heart murmurs were associated with cardiac disease.
Design—Retrospective multi-institutional case series.
Procedures—Medical records of all chinchilla patients evaluated at the Tufts University Foster Hospital for Small Animals between 2001 and 2009, the University of California-Davis William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1996 and 2009, and the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1998 and 2009 were reviewed.
Results—Prevalence of heart murmurs was 23% (59/260). Of 15 chinchillas with heart murmurs that underwent echocardiography, 8 had echocardiographic abnormalities, including dynamic right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, mitral regurgitation, hypertrophy of the left ventricle, tricuspid regurgitation, and hypovolemia. Echocardiographic abnormalities were approximately 29 times as likely (OR, 28.7) to be present in chinchillas with a murmur of grade 3 or higher than in chinchillas without a murmur.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that heart murmurs are common in chinchillas and that chinchillas with heart murmurs often have echocardiographic abnormalities, with valvular disease being the most common. On the basis of these results, we believe that echocardiography should be recommended for chinchillas with heart murmurs, especially older chinchillas with murmurs of grade 3 or higher. Further prospective studies are needed to accurately evaluate the prevalence of cardiac disease in chinchillas with heart murmurs.