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Abstract

Objective—To estimate the extent to which infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) of cows in a large dairy was attributable to the infection status of their dams.

Design—Retrospective longitudinal study.

Animals—625 dam-daughter pairs of Holstein cows.

Procedure—Serologic test results were compared between cows and their dams. Logistic regression was used to assess whether a cow's serologic status was associated with its dam's serologic status. Infection with MAP attributable to being born to a seropositive dam was estimated for individual cows and for the herd.

Results—Cows with seropositive dams were 6.6 times as likely to be seropositive, compared with cows of seronegative dams. For seropositive cows born to seropositive dams, 84.6% of seropositivity was attributable to being born to a seropositive dam and 15.4% to other exposures, including exposure as calves to flush water that contained feces of adult cattle. For the herd as a whole, the seropositive status in 34% of seropositive cows was attributable to being born to a seropositive dam.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For dairy herds that breed seropositive cows, subsequent transmission of MAP to their daughters, either congenitally or via exposure to feces and colostrum of the dam shortly after birth, can contribute substantially to maintaining prevalence of MAP in a herd. Removal of seropositive, clinically unaffected cows and their daughters would be necessary to reduce infection with MAP attributable to congenital or periparturient transmission from dam to daughter. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:450–454)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate when foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) would first be detected in bulk tank milk of dairies after exposure to FMDV.

Sample Population—Hypothetical dairy herds milking 100, 500, or 1,000 cows.

Procedures—For each day after herd exposure to FMDV, infection, milk yield, and virolactia were simulated for individual cows with low and high rates of intraherd transmission to estimate when a PCR assay would detect virus in bulk tank milk. Detection limits were based on assumptions for the number of virus genomes per milliliter of milk and for analytical sensitivity of a PCR assay.

Results—A mean of 10% of the cows was predicted to have FMD lesions from 7 to 8 days and from 13.5 to 15 days after herd exposure for herds with high and low intraherd transmission rates, respectively. Herd bulk milk volume decreased by 10% by 8.5 to 9.5 days and by 15 to 16.5 days after herd exposure for herds with high and low transmission rates, respectively. Mean times by which FMDV would be first detected in bulk milk were 2.5 days and 6.5 to 8 days after herd exposure, which were extended for 10 to 11 days and 17 to 18 days for herds with high and low transmission rates, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PCR screening of bulk milk for FMDV would likely detect FMDV in dairy herds several days sooner than might be expected for owner reporting of clinical signs and thus should be worthy of consideration for regional, national, or global FMD surveillance.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and crude morbidity and mortality ratios in BVDV-vaccinated and unvaccinated dairy heifer calves managed under typical dairy drylot conditions.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—106 female Holstein calves.

Procedure—Seroconversion rates for BVDV types I and II and proportional morbidity and mortality ratios were compared between calves given a killed BVDV type-I vaccine at 15 days of age and a modified-live BVDV type-I vaccine at 40 to 45 days of age (n = 53) and calves given no BVDV vaccines (53). Sera were collected at 45-day intervals as calves moved from individual hutches to corrals holding increasingly larger numbers of calves. Seroconversion was used as evidence of exposure to BVDV.

Results—Crude proportional morbidity (0.16) and mortality (0.17) ratios for control calves did not differ significantly from those of vaccinated calves (0.28 and 0.12, respectively). The proportion of control calves that seroconverted to BVDV type I through 9 months of age (0.629) was significantly higher than that of vaccinated calves that seroconverted, unrelated to vaccination, during the same period (0.536). Estimated overall protective effect of vaccination against BVDV type I through 4 to 9 months of age was 48%. The proportion of control calves that seroconverted to BVDV type II (0.356) was not different from that of vaccinated calves (0.470).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that calfhood vaccination may be an appropriate strategy to help reduce short-term transmission of some but not necessarily all strains of BVDV. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:968–975)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize husbandry practices that could affect the risks of foreign animal disease in miniature swine.

Design—Survey study.

Study Population—106 owners of miniature swine.

Procedures—An online survey of owners of miniature swine was conducted to obtain information about miniature pig and owner demographics; pig husbandry; movements of pigs; and pig contacts with humans, other miniature swine, and livestock.

Results—12 states, 106 premises, and 317 miniature swine were represented in the survey. More than a third (35%) of miniature swine owners also owned other livestock species. Regular contact with livestock species at other premises was reported by 13% of owners. More than a third of owners visited shows or fairs (39%) and club or association events (37%) where miniature swine were present. More than 40% of owners fed food waste to miniature swine. Approximately half (48%) of the veterinarians providing health care for miniature swine were in mixed-animal practice.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated that miniature swine kept as pets can be exposed, directly and indirectly, to feed and other livestock, potentially introducing, establishing, or spreading a foreign animal disease such as foot-and-mouth disease. In addition, the veterinary services and carcass disposal methods used by miniature swine owners may reduce the likelihood of sick or dead pigs undergoing ante- or postmortem examination by a veterinarian.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a spatial epidemic model to simulate intraherd and interherd transmission of footand- mouth disease (FMD) virus.

Sample Population—2,238 herds, representing beef, dairy, swine, goats, and sheep, and 5 sale yards located in Fresno, Kings, and Tulare counties of California.

Procedure—Using Monte-Carlo simulations, a spatial stochastic epidemic simulation model was developed to identify new herds that would acquire FMD following random selection of an index herd and to assess progression of an epidemic after implementation of mandatory control strategies.

Results—The model included species-specific transition periods for FMD infection, locations of herds, rates of direct and indirect contacts among herds, and probability distributions derived from expert opinions on probabilities of transmission by direct and indirect contact, as well as reduction in contact following implementation of restrictions on movements in designated infected areas and surveillance zones. Models of supplemental control programs included slaughter of all animals within a specified distance of infected herds, slaughter of only high-risk animals identified by use of a model simulation, and vaccination of all animals within a 5- to 50-km radius of infected herds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The FMD model represents a tool for use in planning biosecurity and emergency-response programs and in comparing potential benefits of various strategies for control and eradication of FMD appropriate for specific populations. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:195–204)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess estimated effectiveness of control and eradication procedures for foot-andmouth disease (FMD) in a region of California.

Sample Population—2,238 herds and 5 sale yards in Fresno, Kings, and Tulare counties of California.

Procedure—A spatial stochastic model was used to simulate hypothetical epidemics of FMD for specified control scenarios that included a baseline eradication strategy mandated by USDA and supplemental control strategies of slaughter or vaccination of all animals within a specified distance of infected herds, slaughter of only high-risk animals identified by use of a model simulation, and expansion of infected and surveillance zones.

Results—Median number of herds affected varied from 1 to 385 (17% of all herds), depending on type of index herd and delay in diagnosis of FMD. Percentage of herds infected decreased from that of the baseline eradication strategy by expanding the designated infected area from 10 to 20 km (48%), vaccinating within a 50-km radius of an infected herd (41%), slaughtering the 10 highest-risk herds for each infected herd (39%), and slaughtering all animals within 5 km of an infected herd (24%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results for the model provided a means of assessing the relative merits of potential strategies for control and eradication of FMD should it enter the US livestock population. For the study region, preemptive slaughter of highest-risk herds and vaccination of all animals within a specified distance of an infected herd consistently decreased size and duration of an epidemic, compared with the baseline eradication strategy. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:205–210)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate direct and indirect contact rates on livestock facilities and distance traveled between herd contacts.

Sample Population—320 beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds, 7 artificial insemination technicians, 6 hoof trimmers, 15 veterinarians, 4 sales yard owners, and 7 managers of livestock-related companies within a 3-county region of California.

Procedure—A questionnaire was mailed to livestock producers, and personal and telephone interviews were conducted with individuals.

Results—Mean monthly direct contact rates were 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 for dairies with < 1,000, 1,000 to 1,999, and ≥ 2,000 cattle, respectively. Mean indirect contact rates on dairies ranged from 234 to 743 contacts/ mo and increased by 1 contact/mo as herd size increased by 4.3. Mean direct monthly contact rate for beef herds was 0.4. Distance traveled by personnel and vehicles during a 3-day period ranged from 58.4 to 210.4 km. Of livestock arriving at sales yards, 7% (500/7,072) came from ≥ 60 km away, and of those sold, 32% (1,180/3,721) were destined for a location ≥ 60 km away. Fifty-five percent (16/29) of owners of large beef herds observed deer or elk within 150 m of livestock at least once per month.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Direct and indirect contacts occur on livestock facilities located over a wide geographic area and at a higher frequency on larger facilities. Knowledge of contact rates may be useful for planning biosecurity programs at the herd, state, and national levels and for modeling transmission potential for foot-and-mouth disease virus. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1121–1129)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess relative costs and benefits of vaccination and preemptive herd slaughter to control transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV).

Sample Population—2,238 herds and 5 sale yards located in Fresno, Kings, and Tulare counties of California.

Procedure—Direct costs associated with indemnity, slaughter, cleaning and disinfecting livestock premises, and vaccination were compared for various eradication strategies. Additional cost, total program cost, net benefit, and benefit-cost value (B/C) for each supplemental strategy were estimated, based in part on results of published model simulations for FMD. Sensitivity analyses were conducted.

Results—Mean herd indemnity payments were estimated to be $2.6 million and $110,359 for dairy and nondairy herds, respectively. Cost to clean and disinfect livestock premises ranged from $18,062 to $60,205. Mean vaccination cost was $2,960/herd. Total eradication cost ranged from $61 million to $551 million. All supplemental strategies involving use of vaccination were economically efficient (B/C range, 5.0 to 10.1) and feasible, whereas supplemental strategies involving use of slaughter programs were not economically efficient (B-C, 0.05 to 0.8) or feasible.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination with a highly efficacious vaccine may be a cost-effective strategy for control of FMD if vaccinated animals are not subsequently slaughtered and there is no future adverse economic impact, such as trade restrictions. Although less preferable than the baseline eradication program, selective slaughter of highest-risk herds was preferable to other preemptive slaughter strategies. However, indirect costs can be expected to contribute substantially more than direct costs to the total cost of eradication programs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:805–812)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop models that could be used to predict, for dairy calves, the age at which colostrumderived bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies would no longer offer protection against infection or interfere with vaccination.

Design—Prospective observational field study.

Animals—466 calves in 2 California dairy herds.

Procedure—Serum BVDV neutralizing antibody titers were measured from birth through 300 days of age. The age by which colostrum-derived BVDV antibodies had decayed sufficiently that calves were considered susceptible to BVDV infection (ie, titer ≤ 1:16) or calves became seronegative was modeled with survival analysis methods. Mixed-effects regression analysis was used to model colostrum-derived BVDV antibody titer for any given age.

Results—Half the calves in both herds became seronegative for BVDV type I by 141 days of age and for BVDV type II by 114 days of age. Rate of antibody decay was significantly associated with antibody titer at 1 to 3 days of age and with whether calves were congenitally infected with BVDV. Three-month-old calves were predicted to have a mean BVDV type-I antibody titer of 1:32 and a mean BVDV type-II antibody titer of 1:16.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provide an improved understanding of the decay of BVDV-specific colostrum-derived antibodies in dairy calves raised under typical field conditions. Knowledge of the age when the calf herd becomes susceptible can be useful when designing vaccination programs aimed at minimizing negative effects of colostrum-derived antibodies on vaccine efficacy while maximizing overall calf herd immunity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:678–685)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection between birth and 9 months of age for dairy replacement heifers raised under typical dry-lot management conditions.

Design—Longitudinal observational study.

Animals—446 calves.

Procedure—Calves were randomly selected from 2 dairies that used killed and modified-live BVDV vaccines. Repeated serologic and BVDV polymerase chain reaction assays were used to estimate risk of BVDV infection in calves of various ages (1 to 60 days; 61 to 100 days; 101 days to 9 months) and to estimate overall infection rate by 9 months of age.

Results—Risk of BVDV infection increased with age (maximum risk, 150 to 260 days). Proportion of calves infected with BVDV by 9 months of age was higher for dairy A (0.665), compared with dairy B (0.357). Percentage infected with BVDV type I did not differ between dairy A (18.2%) and dairy B (15.2%), whereas percentage infected with BVDV type II for dairy A (50%) was twice that for dairy B (21%). Between 210 and 220 days of age, infection with BVDV regardless of type was > 1.3%/d on dairy A and 0.5%/d on dairy B.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under drylot conditions, a considerable amount of BVDV infection may occur before 9 months of age. Risk of infection increases with age. Although dairies may appear to have similar management practices, there can be considerably different risks of BVDV infection among dairies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1426–1431)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association