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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 6-year-old Australian Terrier was evaluated for surgical removal of an ossifying fibroma of the left calvarium of 7 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Computed tomography revealed invasion of the mass through the left parietal bone and extension into the epidural space of the brain.

Treatment and Outcome—A left rostrotentorial and frontal bone craniectomy was performed, and the mass was removed, along with a 1-cm margin of grossly normal bone. Cranioplasty was performed with a combination of porcine submucosa, titanium mesh, and screws. The dog recovered from surgery without complications and was discharged 3 days later. The dog was followed up for 24 months after surgery and has remained clinically normal.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that rostrotentorial craniectomy is a viable option for removal of benign tumors affecting the parietal bones in dogs. Reconstruction of the resulting defect in the calvarium is possible with a combination of porcine submucosa and rigid titanium mesh.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To biomechanically evaluate various finger trap patterns and suture materials for securing 5F polyvinylchloride and polypropylene catheters.

Design—In vitro prospective study.

Sample—132 finger trap constructs.

Procedures—Each group of constructs comprised 6 to 10 replicates each of 3 finger trap patterns tied with 2–0 glycolide-lactide copolymer (GLC), braided nylon, and monofilament polypropylene suture on 5F polypropylene and polyvinylchloride catheters. The 3 finger trap variants were of similar lengths but differed in the number of surgeon's throws included in the pattern. Constructs were tested with a universal materials testing machine to the point of failure or a maximum of 100 mm of distraction. Force and distraction data were evaluated for significance with a competing risks model.

Results—There was no difference in performance (as measured by the proportion of test failures, median distraction distance, or median force at failure or end of testing) attributable to the finger trap pattern variants. Sixteen of 66 constructs with polyvinylchloride catheter material failed at ≤ 100 mm distraction, whereas all polypropylene constructs failed during testing. For polypropylene catheters, braided nylon or GLC suture withstood greater distraction distance and force, respectively. For polyvinylchloride catheters, differences among suture types were nonsignificant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggested that, for the material combinations evaluated, a finger trap suture pattern with fewer knots may provide catheter security similar to that for patterns tied with a more traditional pattern. These results should not be extrapolated to catheters of different diameters or materials, patterns tied with different suture sizes, or clinical performance in vivo without further testing.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



A 13-year-old 128-kg miniature donkey gelding was evaluated for right forelimb lameness of 7 weeks’ duration.


Muscular atrophy of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles over the right scapula with a palpable bony prominence over the point of the shoulder was evident. At the walk, the cranial phase of the stride was reduced with adduction of the distal aspect of the limb, dragging of the toe, and lameness (grade, 4/5). Lateral and craniocaudal radiographs of the right shoulder joint revealed lateral luxation of the humerus in relation to the scapula with bony proliferation and remodeling of the humeral head.


Glenoid ostectomy was performed. Immediately after surgery, the donkey was able to intermittently stand squarely on the limb but maintained a reduced cranial phase of the stride at the walk. The donkey had no short-term complications and was discharged from the hospital 11 days after surgery. Following discharge, the donkey was confined to a box stall for 60 days, followed by a gradual increase in movement to full pasture turnout. The lameness continued to improve, and at 15 months after surgery the donkey was turned out in pasture and had mild lameness (grade, 3/5) at the trot. Mild muscular atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was present with no signs of pain on palpation or manipulation of the limb. Shoulder joint radiography at 15 months after surgery revealed remodeling of the glenoid cavity of the scapula and humeral head with formation of a pseudoarthrosis.


Glenoid ostectomy should be considered as an alternative to shoulder joint arthrodesis in small equids with shoulder joint luxation. Other indications for this procedure could include chronic osteoarthritis or fractures affecting the shoulder joint.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 14-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of a large fluid-filled mass on the ventral aspect of the neck that failed to resolve after repeated draining.

Clinical Findings—Radiography and computed tomography revealed a fluid-filled mass 13 cm in diameter extending from the level of the first cervical vertebra to the manubrium. No evidence of metastasis was seen. Cytologic examination of the fluid revealed it to be a transudate with a T4 concentration considered to be normal. Incisional biopsy of the cyst wall was performed and led to a diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst.

Treatment and Outcome—The cyst was excised, and no recurrence was observed 15 months after surgery. Aside from temporary seroma formation, no complications developed after the surgery. A distinct tract through the hyoid apparatus to the base of the tongue, as has been described in humans, was not identified.

Clinical Relevance—Thyroglossal duct cyst should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with masses on the ventral aspect of the neck. Complete excision appeared to be curative in the cat of this report.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


The efficacy of a 1-step surgical preparation technique for skin of dogs prior to elective ovariohysterectomy was evaluated. Dogs randomly assigned to group 1 (n = 30) had their skin prepared for surgery by use of a 2-step method, whereas the skin of dogs in group 2 (n = 30) was prepared for surgery by use of a commercially available product for a 1-step technique. Culture plates for quantitative bacterial counts were applied to the proposed incision site on dogs under general anesthesia after hair at the site was clipped and vacuumed but before antiseptic was applied. A second quantitative bacterial culture plate was applied to the proposed incision site after completion of the surgical preparation technique. Surgeries were routinely completed, and dogs were evaluated by physical examination the next day and at the time of suture removal (7 to 10 days after surgery) for complications. Postoperative complications were minor and consisted primarily of subcutaneous swelling, which resolved with time. All cultures obtained prior to skin preparation included bacteria or yeast. Sixteen cultures obtained after skin preparation (group 1, n = 11; group 2, n = 5) included bacteria or yeast. The total number of colonies of potential pathogens (Staphylococcus sp and Enterobacteriaceae) on the prepreparation cultures was 9,339; 4 colonies were counted on the postpreparation cultures. Potential bacterial pathogens, ie Streptococcus intermedius and gram-negative bacteria, were isolated from dogs prepared with the 2-step technique. None of the dogs that developed postoperative complications had growth on postpreparation culture plates.

There was no significant difference in the percent reduction of microbial numbers after skin preparation for either group. There was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between the pre- and postpreparation microbial numbers for both preparation techniques.

The 1-step technique was a simple, effective, and efficient method of skin preparation in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the histologic pattern and biomechanical properties of adhesions caused by chromic catgut and polypropylene sutures, using an enteropexy model.


Enteropexies were created in dogs, using chromic catgut and polypropylene suture. The adhesions associated with the enteropexies were examined histologically and mechanically.


6 mixed-breed dogs weighing 16 to 20 kg.


72 enteropexies were created between the jejunum and abdominal wall. 36 sites were sutured with chromic catgut, and 36 were sutured with polypropylene. 3 dogs were euthanatized after 1 week. The remaining dogs were euthanatized after 1 month. Samples of the enteropexy sites were obtained for histologic examination. The remaining sites were mechanically distracted until failure of the enteropexy site or adjacent tissue occurred.


Histologic examination of the enteropexy sites did not reveal substantial differences in the degree of inflammation between the 2 suture types at 1 week or 1 month. The degree of inflammation decreased and the maturity of fibrous tissue formed at the enteropexy sites increased for all specimens over time. No statistically significant difference in breaking strength was observed between suture types at 1 week or 1 month.


In dogs, the formation and strength of intentionally created abdominal adhesions are not increased by use of chromic catgut.

Clinical Relevance

Selection of chromic catgut suture for use in surgical procedures where adhesions are desired is unwarranted. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:943–947)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association