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SUMMARY

A total of 5,142 kidney tissue samples and 5,111 serum samples from mature cattle in 49 states and Puerto Rico were collected at slaughter. Age of cattle ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 6.6 years). Leptospires were isolated from 88 (1.7%) kidney tissues, and 2,493 (49%) sera contained antibodies against 1 or more of 12 Leptospira interrogans serovars. Leptospires were observed by immunofluorescence in 41 (0.8%) kidney tissues. Using agglutinin-absorption tests, 73 (83%) isolates were identified as serovar hardjo, 11 (12.5%) as serovar pomona, and 4 (4.5%) as serovar grippotyphosa. By use of restriction endonuclease analysis studies of chromosomal dna, all isolates differed from reference serovars but were identical to strains previously isolated from cattle or swine in the United States. Of the serovar hardjo isolates, 85% were identical to restriction endonuclease analysis type (genotype) hardjo-bovis A and 11 (15%) were identical to genotype hardjo-bovis B. Serovar pomona isolates were identical to genotypes kennewicki A (64%) or kennewicki B (36%), and serovar grippotyphosa isolates were identical to the RM 52 strain. Isolation rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for beef cattle than for dairy cattle and were higher (P < 0.001) for bulls than for cows. Combined culture and immunofluorescence results indicated that 2% of mature cattle were renal carriers of leptospires.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

On the basis of serologic test results and isolation of leptospires from mature cattle, distribution and prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovars and genotypes were compared by state and region of the United States. Relationships between isolation rate and month of sample collection, mean regional temperature, and mean regional precipitation were examined. Isolation rate and seroprevalence were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for southeastern, south central, and Pacific coastal regions than for other regions of the United States. Isolates of genotypes hardjo-bovis A and kennewicki A and B, and of serovar grippotyphosa appeared to be randomly distributed. Genotype hardjo-bovis B isolates came from a southern area of the country that extends from Georgia to New Mexico. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first recorded isolation of serovar hardjo from Hawaii. Although significant relationship was not documented between isolation rate and month or season of the year, seroprevalence for summer, fall, and winter was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that for spring. Regional isolation rate was related more to mean temperature (r = 0.83; P < 0.05) than to mean precipitation amount (r = 0.34; P > 0.50).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To characterize antibody response in horses with clinical signs of Ehrlichia equi infection.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

13 horses with confirmed acute E equi infection.

Procedure

Sequential serum sampling was performed in Connecticut and New York during 1995 and 1996 to identify horses with naturally acquired equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (EGE). Horses with clinical signs of EGE (ie, fever without respiratory involvement) were confirmed as having E equi infection by polymerase chain reaction detection of ehrlichial DNA and by a minimum fourfold increase in total antibody titer by indirect fluorescent antibody staining methods. Infection was corroborated by use of DNA sequencing.

Results

11 of 13 horses did not have detectable antibody in serum samples obtained at onset of disease. Seroconversion was evident in samples obtained 19 to 81 days thereafter. Median time to peak antibody response was 46 days after onset and median titer was 1:320. For 11 of 13 horses, antibody titers were ≤ 1:40 by 215 days after onset.

Clinical Implications

E equi was found in horses in the northeastern United States and caused EGE. Concentration of antibodies to E equi increased within 19 to 81 days of disease onset and were low during early weeks of infection. Therefore, antibody detection may be of limited value for early serologic diagnosis. We suggest that disease may develop from a reinfection, and retrospective serologic studies to determine exposure to E equi may reflect a disproportionate number of negative reactions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1910–1914)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate distribution and intensity of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) uptake in the navicular area in horses with forelimb lameness isolated to the palmar aspect of the foot.

Design

Prospective, case-controlled study.

Animals

7 horses with clinical signs of navicular syndrome and 7 control horses.

Procedure

Palmar view, soft tissue-phase scintigraphic images of the foot were obtained between 7 and 12 minutes after injection of 120 to 170 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Lateral and palmar view, bone-phase images were obtained at 30 minutes and 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection. Palmar views were evaluated by determining the ratio of image density in the navicular area to mean image density in the distal phalangeal area. Palmar and lateral view, bone-phase images were also scored on the basis of navicular area intensity (intense = 3, moderate = 2, mild = 1, and no uptake = 0). Density ratios and mean scores were evaluated as a three-way ANOVA.

Results

Mean navicular-to-distal phalangeal density ratio for affected horses (1.77) was significantly (P = 0.003) greater than that for control horses (0.97). The mean subjective score for affected horses when evaluating palmar views only (1.85) and when evaluating palmar and lateral view pairs together (1.99) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than scores for control horses (0.51, 0.62). Images obtained 1 hour after injection were as good at differentiating affected from control horses as images obtained between 2 to 4 hours after injection.

Conclusion

A substantial number of horses with palmar foot pain have increased scintigraphic uptake within the navicular bone 1 to 4 hours after injection of 99mTc-MDP. Lateral view, bone-phase images are less sensitive than palmar view, bone-phase images in revealing navicular area uptake.

Clinical Relevance

A combination of lateral and palmar view scintigraphic images obtained between 1 and 4 hours after injection of 99mTc-MDP is a useful diagnostic aid in evaluating navicular bone involvement in horses with forelimb lameness isolated to the palmar aspect of the foot. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:415–421)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the distribution of mepivacaine hydrochloride after distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection in horses.

Design

Prospective, uncontrolled study.

Animals

10 adult horses.

Procedure

30 minutes before euthanasia, 8 ml of 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride was injected into the dorsal pouch of a forelimb DIP joint. Synovial tissue from the DIP joint and podotrochlear (navicular) bursa and bone tissue from the medullary cavity of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone were taken from both forelimbs immediately after death. All synovial and bone specimens were analyzed for tissue concentration of mepivacaine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Synovial tissue and bone specimen concentrations from the injected forelimb were compared with corresponding specimens from the noninjected forelimb. All synovial tissue and bone specimen concentrations were compared with an estimated effective tissue concentration of mepivacaine (0.3 µg/mg) for local anesthesia.

Results

Specimen concentrations of mepivacaine from the injected forelimb were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those in the corresponding tissues of the contralateral noninjected forelimb. All DIP joint and navicular bursa synovial tissue specimens from the injected forelimb had greater than the estimated effective tissue concentration of mepivacaine for local anesthesia. Of the 10 navicular bone specimens from the injected forelimb, 4 were higher and 2 were within 20% of the estimated effective tissue concentration of mepivacaine for local anesthesia.

Conclusions

Mepivacaine hydrochloride deposited into the DIP joint should anesthetize pain arising from navicular bursa synovia and may decrease pain arising from the medullary cavity of the navicular bone.

Clinical Relevance

DIP joint injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride is not specific for DIP joint pain. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:422–426)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research