Objective—To determine the effect of weight reduction
on clinical signs of lameness among overweight
dogs with clinical and radiographic signs of hip
Design—Nonblinded prospective clinical trial.
Animals—9 client-owned dogs with radiographic
signs of hip osteoarthritis that weighed 11 to 12%
greater than their ideal body weight and were examined
because of hind limb lameness.
Procedure—Dogs were weighed, and baseline body
condition, hind limb lameness, and hip function
scores were assigned. Severity of lameness was
scored using a numerical rating scale and a visual analogue
scale. Dogs were fed a restricted-calorie diet,
with amount of diet fed calculated to provide 60% of
the calories needed to maintain the dogs' current
weights. Evaluations were repeated midway through
and at the end of the weight-loss period.
Results—Dogs lost between 11 and 18% of initial
body weight. Body weight, body condition score, and
severity of hind limb lameness were all significantly
decreased at the end of the weight-loss period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in overweight dogs with hind limb lameness
secondary to hip osteoarthritis, weight reduction alone
may result in a substantial improvement in clinical lameness.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1089–1091)
Objective—To describe the kinetics of demethylation
of 13C-aminopyrine in healthy dogs for use in determining
the most appropriate time for collection of
blood samples for a 13C-aminopyrine demethylation
blood test for evaluation of hepatic function.
Animals—9 healthy dogs.
Procedures—A 2-mL baseline blood sample was collected
into an evacuated heparinized tube, and 13Caminopyrine
was administered to each dog (2 mg/kg,
IV). Additional 2-mL blood samples were collected 15,
30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 180, 240, 300,
and 360 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine administration.
The CO2 was extracted from blood samples by addition
of a strong acid, and the percentage dose of
13CO2 (PCD) in the extracted gas was determined by
fractional mass spectrometry.
Results—No dogs had gross evidence of adverse
effects, and all had an increase in PCD after IV administration
of 13C-aminopyrine. The PCD had the least
variability among 5 variables used to evaluate hepatic
demethylating capacity. Peak PCD was detected at 30
minutes in 1 dog, 45 minutes in 5 dogs, 60 minutes
in 2 dogs, and 75 minutes in 1 dog. The mean PCD for
the 9 dogs peaked at 45 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PCD appears
to be the preferable variable for evaluation of hepatic
demethylating capacity. Intravenous administration of
13C-aminopyrine leads to a consistent increase in PCD.
Mean PCD peaked 45 minutes after administration,
suggesting that blood sample collection 45 minutes
after 13C-aminopyrine administration may be appropriate
for use in estimating hepatic demethylating
capacity. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:159–162)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of a weight reduction program combined with a basic or more complex physical therapy program including transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation on lameness in overweight dogs with osteoarthritis.
Animals—29 adult overweight or obese dogs with a body condition score of 4/5 or 5/5 and clinical and radiographic signs of osteoarthritis.
Procedures—A weight-loss program was initiated for all dogs. One group received caloric restriction and a home-based physical therapy program. The other group received the identical dietetic protocol and an intensive physical therapy program including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Lameness was assessed clinically and by kinetic gait analysis on a treadmill with 4 force plates to measure symmetry of ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the affected and contralateral limbs in bimonthly intervals for 6 months.
Results—Significant weight loss was achieved in both groups; however, greater weight reduction was attained by dogs treated with caloric restriction and intensive physiotherapy. Mobility and symmetry indices of GRFs were improved after 6 months; the best outcome was detected in the group receiving energy restriction combined with intensive physical therapy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caloric restriction combined with intensive physical therapy improved mobility and facilitated weight loss in overweight dogs. The combination of dietetic and physical therapy may help to improve the health status more efficiently than dietetic treatment alone.
Objective—To determine an optimal dose of carbon 13 (13C)-labeled aminopyrine for use in a 13C-aminopyrine demethylation blood test in healthy dogs.
Animals—9 adult dogs.
Procedures—Food was withheld from each dog for 12 hours. A 2-mL baseline blood sample was obtained from each dog and placed into an evacuated tube containing sodium heparin. Carbon 13-labeled aminopyrine was administered IV at doses of 1, 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg. Additional blood samples (2 mL) were obtained and placed into evacuated tubes containing sodium heparin 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine administration. Hydrochloric acid was used to extract CO2 from blood samples. The extracted gas was analyzed by fractional mass spectrometry to determine the percentage dose of 13C administered as 13C-aminopyrine and recovered in extracted gas (PCD).
Results—Gross evidence of clinical adverse effects was not detected in any dog after administration of 13C-aminopyrine. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for PCD was significantly lower than the mean CV for the summation of PCD values up to a given sampling time (CUMPCD). Mean PCD values among the 4 doses for each sample time were not significantly different. Administration of 13C-aminopyrine at a dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in the lowest interindividual variability.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PCD is superior to CUMPCD for the quantification of aminopyrine demethylation. Administration of 13C-13C-aminopyrine at a dose of 2 mg/kg is appropriate for use in the 13C-aminopyrine demethylation blood test in healthy dogs.